Gilbert Labelle ; Annie Lacasse

Closed paths whose steps are roots of unity
dmtcs:2937 
Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science,
January 1, 2011,
DMTCS Proceedings vol. AO, 23rd International Conference on Formal Power Series and Algebraic Combinatorics (FPSAC 2011)

https://doi.org/10.46298/dmtcs.2937
Closed paths whose steps are roots of unity
Authors: Gilbert Labelle ; Annie Lacasse
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Gilbert Labelle;Annie Lacasse
We give explicit formulas for the number $U_n(N)$ of closed polygonal paths of length $N$ (starting from the origin) whose steps are $n^{\textrm{th}}$ roots of unity, as well as asymptotic expressions for these numbers when $N \rightarrow \infty$. We also prove that the sequences $(U_n(N))_{N \geq 0}$ are $P$recursive for each fixed $n \geq 1$ and leave open the problem of determining the values of $N$ for which the $\textit{dual}$ sequences $(U_n(N))_{n \geq 1}$ are $P$recursive.