# special issue FCT'15

This is a special issue for the 20th International Symposium on Fundamentals of Computation Theory, Gdansk, Poland

guest editors Igor Walukiewicz and Adrian Kosowski

### Multidimensional Binary Vector Assignment problem: standard, structural and above guarantee parameterizations

In this article we focus on the parameterized complexity of the Multidimensional Binary Vector Assignment problem (called \BVA). An input of this problem is defined by $m$ disjoint sets $V^1, V^2, \dots, V^m$, each composed of $n$ binary vectors of size $p$. An output is a set of $n$ disjoint $m$-tuples of vectors, where each $m$-tuple is obtained by picking one vector from each set $V^i$. To each $m$-tuple we associate a $p$ dimensional vector by applying the bit-wise AND operation on the $m$ vectors of the tuple. The objective is to minimize the total number of zeros in these $n$ vectors. mBVA can be seen as a variant of multidimensional matching where hyperedges are implicitly locally encoded via labels attached to vertices, but was originally introduced in the context of integrated circuit manufacturing. We provide for this problem FPT algorithms and negative results ($ETH$-based results, $W$[2]-hardness and a kernel lower bound) according to several parameters: the standard parameter $k$ i.e. the total number of zeros), as well as two parameters above some guaranteed values.

### A Characterization for Decidable Separability by Piecewise Testable Languages

The separability problem for word languages of a class $\mathcal{C}$ by languages of a class $\mathcal{S}$ asks, for two given languages $I$ and $E$ from $\mathcal{C}$, whether there exists a language $S$ from $\mathcal{S}$ that includes $I$ and excludes $E$, that is, $I \subseteq S$ and $S\cap E = \emptyset$. In this work, we assume some mild closure properties for $\mathcal{C}$ and study for which such classes separability by a piecewise testable language (PTL) is decidable. We characterize these classes in terms of decidability of (two variants of) an unboundedness problem. From this, we deduce that separability by PTL is decidable for a number of language classes, such as the context-free languages and languages of labeled vector addition systems. Furthermore, it follows that separability by PTL is decidable if and only if one can compute for any language of the class its downward closure wrt. the scattered substring ordering (i.e., if the set of scattered substrings of any language of the class is effectively regular). The obtained decidability results contrast some undecidability results. In fact, for all (non-regular) language classes that we present as examples with decidable separability, it is undecidable whether a given language is a PTL itself. Our characterization involves a result of independent interest, which states that for any kind of languages $I$ and $E$, non-separability by PTL is equivalent to the existence of common patterns in $I$ and $E$.

### Depth, Highness and DNR degrees

We study Bennett deep sequences in the context of recursion theory; in particular we investigate the notions of O(1)-deepK, O(1)-deepC , order-deep K and order-deep C sequences. Our main results are that Martin-Loef random sets are not order-deepC , that every many-one degree contains a set which is not O(1)-deepC , that O(1)-deepC sets and order-deepK sets have high or DNR Turing degree and that no K-trival set is O(1)-deepK.

### Longest Gapped Repeats and Palindromes

A gapped repeat (respectively, palindrome) occurring in a word $w$ is a factor $uvu$ (respectively, $u^Rvu$) of $w$. In such a repeat (palindrome) $u$ is called the arm of the repeat (respectively, palindrome), while $v$ is called the gap. We show how to compute efficiently, for every position $i$ of the word $w$, the longest gapped repeat and palindrome occurring at that position, provided that the length of the gap is subject to various types of restrictions. That is, that for each position $i$ we compute the longest prefix $u$ of $w[i..n]$ such that $uv$ (respectively, $u^Rv$) is a suffix of $w[1..i-1]$ (defining thus a gapped repeat $uvu$ -- respectively, palindrome $u^Rvu$), and the length of $v$ is subject to the aforementioned restrictions.