We study the local limit of the fixed-point forest, a tree structure associated to a simple sorting algorithm on permutations. This local limit can be viewed as an infinite random tree that can be constructed from a Poisson point process configuration on $[0,1]^\mathbb{N}$. We generalize this random tree, and compute the expected size and expected number of leaves of a random rooted subtree in the generalized version. We also obtain bounds on the variance of the size.

Classical pattern avoidance and occurrence are well studied in the symmetric group $\mathcal{S}_{n}$. In this paper, we provide explicit recurrence relations to the generating functions counting the number of classical pattern occurrence in the set of 132-avoiding permutations and the set of 123-avoiding permutations.

Section:
Permutation Patterns

Using existing classification results for the 7- and 8-cycles in the pancake graph, we determine the number of permutations that require 4 pancake flips (prefix reversals) to be sorted. A similar characterization of the 8-cycles in the burnt pancake graph, due to the authors, is used to derive a formula for the number of signed permutations requiring 4 (burnt) pancake flips to be sorted. We furthermore provide an analogous characterization of the 9-cycles in the burnt pancake graph. Finally we present numerical evidence that polynomial formulae exist giving the number of signed permutations that require $k$ flips to be sorted, with $5\leq k\leq9$.

An inversion sequence of length $n$ is an integer sequence $e=e_{1}e_{2}\dots e_{n}$ such that $0\leq e_{i}<i$ for each $i$. Corteel--Martinez--Savage--Weselcouch and Mansour--Shattuck began the study of patterns in inversion sequences, focusing on the enumeration of those that avoid classical patterns of length 3. We initiate an analogous systematic study of consecutive patterns in inversion sequences, namely patterns whose entries are required to occur in adjacent positions. We enumerate inversion sequences that avoid consecutive patterns of length 3, and generalize some results to patterns of arbitrary length. Additionally, we study the notion of Wilf equivalence of consecutive patterns in inversion sequences, as well as generalizations of this notion analogous to those studied for permutation patterns. We classify patterns of length up to 4 according to the corresponding Wilf equivalence relations.

Two permutations in a class are Wilf-equivalent if, for every size, $n$, the number of permutations in the class of size $n$ containing each of them is the same. Those infinite classes that have only one equivalence class in each size for this relation are characterised provided either that they avoid at least one permutation of size 3, or at least three permutations of size 4.

Super-strong Wilf equivalence classes of the symmetric group ${\mathcal S}_n$ on $n$ letters, with respect to the generalized factor order, were shown by Hadjiloucas, Michos and Savvidou (2018) to be in bijection with pyramidal sequences of consecutive differences. In this article we enumerate the latter by giving recursive formulae in terms of a two-dimensional analogue of non-interval permutations. As a by-product, we obtain a recursively defined set of representatives of super-strong Wilf equivalence classes in ${\mathcal S}_n$. We also provide a connection between super-strong Wilf equivalence and the geometric notion of shift equivalence---originally defined by Fidler, Glasscock, Miceli, Pantone, and Xu (2018) for words---by showing that an alternate way to characterize super-strong Wilf equivalence for permutations is by keeping only rigid shifts in the definition of shift equivalence. This allows us to fully describe shift equivalence classes for permutations of size $n$ and […]

Section:
Permutation Patterns