# Vol. 5

### 1. Recognizing the P_4-structure of claw-free graphs and a larger graph class

The P_4-structure of a graph G is a hypergraph \textbfH on the same vertex set such that four vertices form a hyperedge in \textbfH whenever they induce a P_4 in G. We present a constructive algorithm which tests in polynomial time whether a given 4-uniform hypergraph is the P_4-structure of a claw-free graph and of (banner,chair,dart)-free graphs. The algorithm relies on new structural results for (banner,chair,dart)-free graphs which are based on the concept of p-connectedness. As a byproduct, we obtain a polynomial time criterion for perfectness for a large class of graphs properly containing claw-free graphs.

### 2. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity - A combinatorial approach I : Symmetric function theoretical methods

We present symmetric function theoretical methods for solving a performance analysis problem related with modulation protocols with diversity.

### 3. Lyndon factorization of generalized words of Thue

The i-th symbol of the well-known infinite word of Thue on the alphabet \ 0,1\ can be characterized as the parity of the number of occurrences of the digit 1 in the binary notation of i. Generalized words of Thue are based on counting the parity of occurrences of an arbitrary word w∈\ 0,1\^+-0^* in the binary notation of i. We provide here the standard Lyndon factorization of some subclasses of this class of infinite words.

### 4. 3x+1 Minus the +

We use Conway's \emphFractran language to derive a function R:\textbfZ^+ → \textbfZ^+ of the form R(n) = r_in if n ≡ i \bmod d where d is a positive integer, 0 ≤ i < d and r_0,r_1, ... r_d-1 are rational numbers, such that the famous 3x+1 conjecture holds if and only if the R-orbit of 2^n contains 2 for all positive integers n. We then show that the R-orbit of an arbitrary positive integer is a constant multiple of an orbit that contains a power of 2. Finally we apply our main result to show that any cycle \ x_0, ... ,x_m-1 \ of positive integers for the 3x+1 function must satisfy \par ∑ _i∈ \textbfE \lfloor x_i/2 \rfloor = ∑ _i∈ \textbfO \lfloor x_i/2 \rfloor +k. \par where \textbfO=\ i : x_i is odd \ , \textbfE=\ i : x_i is even \ , and k=|\textbfO|. \par The method used illustrates a general mechanism for deriving mathematical results about the iterative dynamics of arbitrary integer functions from \emphFractran algorithms.

### 5. Graph Decompositions and Factorizing Permutations

A factorizing permutation of a given graph is simply a permutation of the vertices in which all decomposition sets appear to be factors. Such a concept seems to play a central role in recent papers dealing with graph decomposition. It is applied here for modular decomposition and we propose a linear algorithm that computes the whole decomposition tree when a factorizing permutation is provided. This algorithm can be seen as a common generalization of Ma and Hsu for modular decomposition of chordal graphs and Habib, Huchard and Spinrad for inheritance graphs decomposition. It also suggests many new decomposition algorithms for various notions of graph decompositions.

### 6. Upper bounds on the non-3-colourability threshold of random graphs

We present a full analysis of the expected number of 'rigid' 3-colourings of a sparse random graph. This shows that, if the average degree is at least 4.99, then as n → ∞ the expected number of such colourings tends to 0 and so the probability that the graph is 3-colourable tends to 0. (This result is tight, in that with average degree 4.989 the expected number tends to ∞.) This bound appears independently in Kaporis \textitet al. [Kap]. We then give a minor improvement, showing that the probability that the graph is 3-colourable tends to 0 if the average degree is at least 4.989.

### 7. A Unified Framework to Compute over Tree Synchronized Grammars and Primal Grammars

Tree languages are powerful tools for the representation and schematization of infinite sets of terms for various purposes (unification theory, verification and specification ...). In order to extend the regular tree language framework, more complex formalisms have been developed. In this paper, we focus on Tree Synchronized Grammars and Primal Grammars which introduce specific control structures to represent non regular sets of terms. We propose a common unified framework in order to achieve the membership test for these particular languages. Thanks to a proof system, we provide a full operational framework, that allows us to transform tree grammars into Prolog programs (as it already exists for word grammars with DCG) whose goal is to recognize terms of the corresponding language.

### 8. The Stack-Size of Combinatorial Tries Revisited

In the present paper we consider a generalized class of extended binary trees in which leaves are distinguished in order to represent the location of a key within a trie of the same structure. We prove an exact asymptotic equivalent to the average stack-size of trees with α internal nodes and β leaves corresponding to keys; we assume that all trees with the same parameters α and β have the same probability. The assumption of that uniform model is motivated for example by the usage of tries for the compression of blockcodes. Furthermore, we will prove asymptotics for the r-th moments of the stack-size and we will show that a normalized stack-size possesses a theta distribution in the limit.

### 9. Probabilistic Analysis of Carlitz Compositions

Using generating functions and limit theorems, we obtain a stochastic description of Carlitz compositions of large integer n (i.e. compositions two successive parts of which are different). We analyze: the number M of parts, the number of compositions T(m,n) with m parts, the distribution of the last part size, the correlation between two successive parts, leading to a Markov chain. We describe also the associated processes and the limiting trajectories, the width and thickness of a composition. We finally present a typical simulation. The limiting processes are characterized by Brownian Motion and some discrete distributions.

### 10. Partially complemented representations of digraphs

A complementation operation on a vertex of a digraph changes all outgoing arcs into non-arcs, and outgoing non-arcs into arcs. This defines an equivalence relation where two digraphs are equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of such operations. We show that given an adjacency-list representation of a digraph G, many fundamental graph algorithms can be carried out on any member G' of G's equivalence class in O(n+m) time, where m is the number of arcs in G, not the number of arcs in G' . This may have advantages when G' is much larger than G. We use this to generalize to digraphs a simple O(n + m log n) algorithm of McConnell and Spinrad for finding the modular decomposition of undirected graphs. A key step is finding the strongly-connected components of a digraph F in G's equivalence class, where F may have ~(m log n) arcs.

### 11. The height of q-Binary Search Trees

q-binary search trees are obtained from words, equipped with a geometric distribution instead of permutations. The average and variance of the heighth computated, based on random words of length n, as well as a Gaussian limit law.

### 12. Synthesis of space-time optimal systolic algorithms for the Cholesky factorization

In this paper we study the synthesis of space-time optimal systolic arrays for the Cholesky Factorization (CF). First, we discuss previous allocation methods and their application to CF. Second, stemming from a new allocation method we derive a space-time optimal array, with nearest neighbor connections, that requires 3N + Θ (1) time steps and N^2/8 + Θ (N) processors, where N is the size of the problem. The number of processors required by this new design improves the best previously known bound, N^2/6 + Θ (N), induced by previous allocation methods. This is the first contribution of the paper. The second contribution stemms from the fact that the paper also introduces a new allocation method that suggests to first perform clever index transformations on the initial dependence graph of a given system of uniform recurrent equations before applying the weakest allocation method, the projection method.

### 13. Multicolored isomorphic spanning trees in complete graphs

Can a complete graph on an even number n (>4) of vertices be properly edge-colored with n-1 colors in such a way that the edges can be partitioned into edge disjoint colorful isomorphic spanning trees? A spanning treee is colorful if all n-1 colors occur among its edges. It is proved that this is possible to accomplish whenever n is a power of two, or five times a power of two.

### 14. On a Unimodality Conjecture in Matroid Theory

A certain unimodal conjecture in matroid theory states the number of rank-r matroids on a set of size n is unimodal in r and attains its maximum at r=\lfloor n/2 \rfloor . We show that this conjecture holds up to r=3 by constructing a map from a class of rank-2 matroids into the class of loopless rank-3 matroids. Similar inequalities are proven for the number of non-isomorphic loopless matroids, loopless matroids and matroids.

### 15. The Cycles of the Multiway Perfect Shuffle Permutation

The (k,n)-perfect shuffle, a generalisation of the 2-way perfect shuffle, cuts a deck of kn cards into k equal size decks and interleaves them perfectly with the first card of the last deck at the top, the first card of the second-to-last deck as the second card, and so on. It is formally defined to be the permutation ρ _k,n: i → ki \bmod (kn+1), for 1 ≤ i ≤ kn. We uncover the cycle structure of the (k,n)-perfect shuffle permutation by a group-theoretic analysis and show how to compute representative elements from its cycles by an algorithm using O(kn) time and O((\log kn)^2) space. Consequently it is possible to realise the (k,n)-perfect shuffle via an in-place, linear-time algorithm. Algorithms that accomplish this for the 2-way shuffle have already been demonstrated.