# Vol. 10 no. 3

### 1. On the k-restricted structure ratio in planar and outerplanar graphs

A planar k-restricted structure is a simple graph whose blocks are planar and each has at most k vertices. Planar k-restricted structures are used by approximation algorithms for Maximum Weight Planar Subgraph, which motivates this work. The planar k-restricted ratio is the infimum, over simple planar graphs H, of the ratio of the number of edges in a maximum k-restricted structure subgraph of H to the number edges of H. We prove that, as k tends to infinity, the planar k-restricted ratio tends to 1 = 2. The same result holds for the weighted version. Our results are based on analyzing the analogous ratios for outerplanar and weighted outerplanar graphs. Here both ratios tend to 1 as k goes to infinity, and we provide good estimates of the rates of convergence, showing that they differ in the weighted from the unweighted case.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 2. Simultaneous generation for zeta values by the Markov-WZ method

By application of the Markov-WZ method, we prove a more general form of a bivariate generating function identity containing, as particular cases, Koecher's and Almkvist-Granville's Apéry-like formulae for odd zeta values. As a consequence, we get a new identity producing Apéry-like series for all ζ(2n+4m+3),n,m ≥ 0, convergent at the geometric rate with ratio 2−10.
Section: Combinatorics

### 3. Shifts with decidable language and non-computable entropy

We consider subshifts of the full shift of all binary bi-infinite sequences. On the one hand, the topological entropy of any subshift with computably co-enumerable language is a right-computable real number between 0 and 1. We show that, on the other hand, any right-computable real number between 0 and 1, whether computable or not, is the entropy of some subshift with even polynomial time decidable language. In addition, we show that computability of the entropy of a subshift does not imply any kind of computability of the language of the subshift
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

### 4. The location of the first maximum in the first sojourn of a Dyck path

For Dyck paths (nonnegative symmetric) random walks, the location of the first maximum within the first sojourn is studied. Generating functions and explicit resp. asymptotic expressions for the average are derived. Related parameters are also discussed.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 5. On-line Ramsey numbers for paths and stars

We study on-line version of size-Ramsey numbers of graphs deﬁned via a game played between Builder and Painter: in one round Builder joins two vertices by an edge and Painter paints it red or blue. The goal of Builder is to force Painter to create a monochromatic copy of a ﬁxed graph H in as few rounds as possible. The minimum number of rounds (assuming both players play perfectly) is the on-line Ramsey number r(H) of the graph H. We determine exact values of r(H) for a few short paths and obtain a general upper bound r(Pn) ≤ 4n −7. We also study asymmetric version of this parameter when one of the target graphs is a star Sn with n edges. We prove that r(Sn, H) ≤ n*e(H) when H is any tree, cycle or clique
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 6. Progress on the traceability conjecture for oriented graphs

A digraph is k-traceable if each of its induced subdigraphs of order k is traceable. The Traceability Conjecture is that for k ≥ 2 every k-traceable oriented graph of order at least 2k − 1 is traceable. The conjecture has been proved for k ≤ 5. We prove that it also holds for k = 6.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 7. A note on compact and compact circular edge-colorings of graphs

We study two variants of edge-coloring of edge-weighted graphs, namely compact edge-coloring and circular compact edge-coloring. First, we discuss relations between these two coloring models. We prove that every outerplanar bipartite graph admits a compact edge-coloring and that the decision problem of the existence of compact circular edge-coloring is NP-complete in general. Then we provide a polynomial time 1:5-approximation algorithm and pseudo-polynomial exact algorithm for compact circular coloring of odd cycles and prove that it is NP-hard to optimally color these graphs. Finally, we prove that if a path P2 is joined by an edge to an odd cycle then the problem of the existence of a compact circular coloring becomes NP-complete.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 8. Counting descents, rises, and levels, with prescribed first element, in words

Recently, Kitaev and Remmel refined the well-known permutation statistic "descent" by fixing parity of one of the descent's numbers which was extended and generalized in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we shall fix a set partition of the natural numbers N,(N1, ..., Ns), and we study the distribution of descents, levels, and rises according to whether the first letter of the descent, rise, or level lies in Ni over the set of words over the alphabet [k] = 1, ..., k. In particular, we refine and generalize some of the results by Burstein and Mansour
Section: Combinatorics

### 9. Extremal K_(s,t)-free bipartite graphs

In this paper new exact values of the Zarankiewicz function z(m,n;s,t) are obtained assuming certain requirements on the parameters. Moreover, all the corresponding extremal graphs are characterized. Finally, an extension of this problem to 3-partite graphs is studied.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 10. On Compact Encoding of Pagenumber $k$ Graphs

In this paper we show an information-theoretic lower bound of kn - o(kn) on the minimum number of bits to represent an unlabeled simple connected n-node graph of pagenumber k. This has to be compared with the efficient encoding scheme of Munro and Raman of 2kn + 2m + o(kn+m) bits (m the number of edges), that is 4kn + 2n + o(kn) bits in the worst-case. For m-edge graphs of pagenumber k (with multi-edges and loops), we propose a 2mlog2k + O(m) bits encoding improving the best previous upper bound of Munro and Raman whenever m ≤ 1 / 2kn/log2 k. Actually our scheme applies to k-page embedding containing multi-edge and loops. Moreover, with an auxiliary table of o(m log k) bits, our coding supports (1) the computation of the degree of a node in constant time, (2) adjacency queries with O(logk) queries of type rank, select and match, that is in O(logk *minlogk / loglogm, loglogk) time and (3) the access to δ neighbors in O(δ) runs of select, rank or match;.

### 11. Convergence of some leader election algorithms

We start with a set of $n$ players. With some probability $P(n,k)$, we kill $n-k$ players; the other ones stay alive, and we repeat with them. What is the distribution of the number $X_n$ of \emph{phases} (or rounds) before getting only one player? We present a probabilistic analysis of this algorithm under some conditions on the probability distributions $P(n,k)$, including stochastic monotonicity and the assumption that roughly a fixed proportion $\al$ of the players survive in each round. We prove a kind of convergence in distribution for $X_n - \log_{1/\!\alpha}(n)$; as in many other similar problems there are oscillations and no true limit distribution, but suitable subsequences converge, and there is an absolutely continuous random variable $Z$ such that $d\l(X_n, \lceil Z + \log_{1/\!\alpha} (n)\rceil\r) \to 0$, where $d$ is either the total variation distance or the Wasserstein distance. Applications of the general result include the leader election algorithm where players are eliminated by independent coin tosses and a variation of the leader election algorithm proposed by W.R. Franklin. We study the latter algorithm further, including numerical results.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 12. Multidimensional cellular automata and generalization of Fekete's lemma

Fekete's lemma is a well-known combinatorial result on number sequences: we extend it to functions defined on d-tuples of integers. As an application of the new variant, we show that nonsurjective d-dimensional cellular automata are characterized by loss of arbitrarily much information on finite supports, at a growth rate greater than that of the support's boundary determined by the automaton's neighbourhood index.
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

### 13. An optimal permutation routing algorithm on full-duplex hexagonal networks

In the permutation routing problem, each processor is the origin of at most one packet and the destination of no more than one packet. The goal is to minimize the number of time steps required to route all packets to their respective destinations, under the constraint that each link can be crossed simultaneously by no more than one packet. We study this problem in a hexagonal network, i.e. a finite subgraph of a triangular grid, which is a widely used network in practical applications. We present an optimal distributed permutation routing algorithm on full-duplex hexagonal networks, using the addressing scheme described by F.G. Nocetti, I. Stojmenovic and J. Zhang (IEEE TPDS 13(9): 962-971, 2002). Furthermore, we prove that this algorithm is oblivious and translation invariant.
Section: Distributed Computing and Networking

### 14. Waiting Time Distribution for Pattern Occurrence in a Constrained Sequence: an Embedding Markov Chain Approach

In this paper we consider the distribution of a pattern of interest in a binary random (d; k)-sequence generated by a Markov source. Such constrained sequences are frequently encountered in communication systems. Unlike the previous approach based on generating function we have chosen here to use Markov chain embedding techniques. By doing so, we get both previous results (sequence constrained up to the rth occurrence), and new ones (sequence constrained up to its end). We also provide in both cases efficient algorithms using basic linear algebra only. We then compare our numerical results to previous ones and finally propose several interesting extensions of our method which further illustrate the usefulness of our approach. That is to say higher order Markov chains, renewal occurrences rather than overlapping ones, heterogeneous models, more complex patterns of interest, and multistate trial sequences.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms