# Vol. 13 no. 2

### 1. An expected polynomial time algorithm for coloring 2-colorable 3-graphs

We present an algorithm that for 2-colorable 3-uniform hypergraphs, finds a 2-coloring in average running time O (n(5) log(2) n).
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 2. Parameterized Problems Related to Seidel's Switching

Seidel's switching is a graph operation which makes a given vertex adjacent to precisely those vertices to which it was non-adjacent before, while keeping the rest of the graph unchanged. Two graphs are called switching-equivalent if one can be made isomorphic to the other by a sequence of switches. In this paper, we continue the study of computational complexity aspects of Seidel's switching, concentrating on Fixed Parameter Complexity. Among other results we show that switching to a graph with at most k edges, to a graph of maximum degree at most k, to a k-regular graph, or to a graph with minimum degree at least k are fixed parameter tractable problems, where k is the parameter. On the other hand, switching to a graph that contains a given fixed graph as an induced subgraph is W -complete. We also show the NP-completeness of switching to a graph with a clique of linear size, and of switching to a graph with small number of edges. A consequence of the latter result is the NP-completeness of Maximum Likelihood Decoding of graph theoretic codes based on complete graphs.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 3. Random 2-SAT Solution Components and a Fitness Landscape

We describe a limiting distribution for the number of connected components in the subgraph of the discrete cube induced by the satisfying assignments to a random 2-SAT formula. We show that, for the probability range where formulas are likely to be satisfied, the random number of components converges weakly (in the number of variables) to a distribution determined by a Poisson random variable. The number of satisfying assignments or solutions is known to grow exponentially in the number of variables. Thus, our result implies that exponentially many solutions are organized into a stochastically bounded number of components. We also describe an application to biological evolution; in particular, to a type of fitness landscape where satisfying assignments represent viable genotypes and connectivity of genotypes is limited by single site mutations. The biological result is that, with probability approaching 1, each viable genotype is connected by single site mutations to an exponential number of other viable genotypes while the number of viable clusters is finite.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 4. Sturmian Sequences and Invertible Substitutions

It is known that a Sturmian sequence S can be defined as a coding of the orbit of rho (called the intercept of S) under a rotation of irrational angle alpha (called the slope). On the other hand, a fixed point of an invertible substitution is Sturmian. Naturally, there are two interrelated questions: (1) Given an invertible substitution, we know that its fixed point is Sturmian. What is the slope and intercept? (2) Which kind of Sturmian sequences can be fixed by certain non-trivial invertible substitutions? In this paper we give a unified treatment to the two questions. We remark that though the results are known, our proof is very elementary and concise.
Section: Combinatorics

### 5. Generation of Cubic graphs

We describe a new algorithm for the efficient generation of all non-isomorphic connected cubic graphs. Our implementation of this algorithm is more than 4 times faster than previous generators. The generation can also be efficiently restricted to cubic graphs with girth at least 4 or 5.
Section: Discrete Algorithms

### 6. Avoidance colourings for small nonclassical Ramsey numbers

The irredundant Ramsey number s - s(m, n) [upper domination Ramsey number u - u(m, n), respectively] is the smallest natural number s [u, respectively] such that in any red-blue edge colouring (R, B) of the complete graph of order s [u, respectively], it holds that IR(B) \textgreater= m or IR(R) \textgreater= n [Gamma (B) \textgreater= m or Gamma(R) \textgreater= n, respectively], where Gamma and IR denote respectively the upper domination number and the irredundance number of a graph. Furthermore, the mixed irredundant Ramsey number t = t(m, n) [mixed domination Ramsey number v = v(m, n), respectively] is the smallest natural number t [v, respectively] such that in any red-blue edge colouring (R, B) of the complete graph of order t [v, respectively], it holds that IR(B) \textgreater= m or beta(R) \textgreater= n [Gamma(B) \textgreater= m or beta(R) \textgreater= n, respectively], where beta denotes the independent domination number of a graph. These four classes of non-classical Ramsey numbers have previously been studied in the literature. In this paper we introduce a new Ramsey number w = w(m, n), called the irredundant-domination Ramsey number, which is the smallest natural number w such that in any red-blue edge colouring (R, B) of the complete graph of order w, it holds that IR(B) \textgreater= m or Gamma(R) \textgreater= n. A computer search is employed to determine complete sets of avoidance colourings of small order for these five classes of nonclassical Ramsey […]
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 7. A Combinatorial Approach to the Tanny Sequence

The Tanny sequence T (i) is a sequence defined recursively as T(i) = T(i - 1 - T(i - 1)) + T(i - 2 - T(i - 2)), T(0) = T(1) = T(2) = 1. In the first part of this paper we give combinatorial proofs of all the results regarding T(i), that Tanny proved in his paper "A well-behaved cousin of the Hofstadter sequence", Discrete Mathematics, 105(1992), pp. 227-239, using algebraic means. In most cases our proofs turn out to be simpler and shorter. Moreover, they give a "visual" appeal to the theory developed by Tanny. We also generalize most of Tanny's results. In the second part of the paper we present many new results regarding T(i) and prove them combinatorially. Given two integers n and k, it is interesting to know if T(n) = k or not. In this paper we characterize such numbers.
Section: Combinatorics

### 8. Colouring the Square of the Cartesian Product of Trees

We prove upper and lower bounds on the chromatic number of the square of the cartesian product of trees. The bounds are equal if each tree has even maximum degree.
Section: Graph and Algorithms