For a parallel computer system with m identical computers, we study optimal performance precaution for one possible computer crash. We want to calculate the cost of crash precaution in the case of no crash. We thus define a tolerance level r meaning that we only tolerate that the completion time of a parallel program after a crash is at most a factor r + 1 larger than if we use optimal allocation on m - 1 computers. This is an r-dependent restriction of the set of allocations of a program. Then, what is the worst-case ratio of the optimal r-dependent completion time in the case of no crash and the unrestricted optimal completion time of the same parallel program? We denote the maximal ratio of completion times f(r, m) - i.e., the ratio for worst-case programs. In the paper we establish upper and lower bounds of the worst-case cost function f (r, m) and characterize worst-case programs.

Section:
Distributed Computing and Networking

An edge-weighting vertex colouring of a graph is an edge-weight assignment such that the accumulated weights at the vertices yields a proper vertex colouring. If such an assignment from a set S exists, we say the graph is S-weight colourable. It is conjectured that every graph with no isolated edge is \1, 2, 3\-weight colourable. We explore the problem of classifying those graphs which are \1, 2\ -weight colourable. We establish that a number of classes of graphs are S -weight colourable for much more general sets S of size 2. In particular, we show that any graph having only cycles of length 0 mod 4 is S -weight colourable for most sets S of size 2. As a consequence, we classify the minimal graphs which are not \1, 2\-weight colourable with respect to subgraph containment. We also demonstrate techniques for constructing graphs which are not \1, 2\-weight colourable.

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

We say that a hypergraph H is hamiltonian chain saturated if H does not contain a hamiltonian chain but by adding any new edge we create a hamiltonian chain in H. In this paper we ask about the smallest size of a k-uniform hamiltonian chain saturated hypergraph. We present a construction of a family of k-uniform hamiltonian chain saturated hypergraphs with O(n(k-1/2)) edges.

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

An independent dominating set D of a graph G = (V,E) is a subset of vertices such that every vertex in V \ D has at least one neighbor in D and D is an independent set, i.e. no two vertices of D are adjacent in G. Finding a minimum independent dominating set in a graph is an NP-hard problem. Whereas it is hard to cope with this problem using parameterized and approximation algorithms, there is a simple exact O(1.4423^n)-time algorithm solving the problem by enumerating all maximal independent sets. In this paper we improve the latter result, providing the first non trivial algorithm computing a minimum independent dominating set of a graph in time O(1.3569^n). Furthermore, we give a lower bound of \Omega(1.3247^n) on the worst-case running time of this algorithm, showing that the running time analysis is almost tight.

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

The generalized connectivity of a graph, which was introduced by Chartrand et al. in 1984, is a generalization of the concept of vertex connectivity. Let S be a nonempty set of vertices of G, a collection \T-1, T (2), ... , T-r\ of trees in G is said to be internally disjoint trees connecting S if E(T-i) boolean AND E(T-j) - empty set and V (T-i) boolean AND V(T-j) = S for any pair of distinct integers i, j, where 1 <= i, j <= r. For an integer k with 2 <= k <= n, the k-connectivity kappa(k) (G) of G is the greatest positive integer r for which G contains at least r internally disjoint trees connecting S for any set S of k vertices of G. Obviously, kappa(2)(G) = kappa(G) is the connectivity of G. Sabidussi's Theorem showed that kappa(G square H) >= kappa(G) + kappa(H) for any two connected graphs G and H. In this paper, we prove that for any two connected graphs G and H with kappa(3) (G) >= kappa(3) (H), if kappa(G) > kappa(3) (G), then kappa(3) (G square H) >= kappa(3) (G) + kappa(3) (H); if kappa(G) = kappa(3)(G), then kappa(3)(G square H) >= kappa(3)(G) + kappa(3) (H) - 1. Our result could be seen as an extension of Sabidussi's Theorem. Moreover, all the bounds are sharp.

Section:
Graph Theory

In this paper, we consider a concept of adaptive identification of vertices and sets of vertices in different graphs, which was recently introduced by Ben-Haim, Gravier, Lobstein and Moncel (2008). The motivation for adaptive identification comes from applications such as sensor networks and fault detection in multiprocessor systems. We present an optimal adaptive algorithm for identifying vertices in cycles. We also give efficient adaptive algorithms for identifying sets of vertices in different graphs such as cycles, king lattices and square lattices. Adaptive identification is also considered in Hamming spaces, which is one of the most widely studied graphs in the field of identifying codes.

Section:
Combinatorics

Let T be a monadic-second order class of finite trees, and let T(x) be its (ordinary) generating function, with radius of convergence rho. If rho >= 1 then T has an explicit specification (without using recursion) in terms of the operations of union, sum, stack, and the multiset operators n and (>= n). Using this, one has an explicit expression for T(x) in terms of the initial functions x and x . (1 - x(n))(-1), the operations of addition and multiplication, and the Polya exponentiation operators E-n, E-(>= n). Let F be a monadic-second order class of finite forests, and let F (x) = Sigma(n) integral(n)x(n) be its (ordinary) generating function. Suppose F is closed under extraction of component trees and sums of forests. Using the above-mentioned structure theory for the class T of trees in F, Compton's theory of 0-1 laws, and a significantly strengthened version of 2003 results of Bell and Burris on generating functions, we show that F has a monadic second-order 0-1 law iff the radius of convergence of F (x) is 1 iff the radius of convergence of T (x) is >= 1.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

We consider the problem of determining an orientation with minimum diameter MOD(G) of a connected and bridge-less graph G. In 2001 Fomin et al. discovered the relation MOD(G) <= 9 gamma(G) - 5 between the minimum oriented diameter and the size gamma(G) of a minimum dominating set. We improve their upper bound to MOD(G) <= 4 gamma(G).

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

By an Euler walk in a 3-uniform hypergraph H we mean an alternating sequence v(0), epsilon(1), v(1), epsilon(2), v(2), ... , v(m-1), epsilon(m), v(m) of vertices and edges in H such that each edge of H appears in this sequence exactly once and v(i-1); v(i) is an element of epsilon(i), v(i-1) not equal v(i), for every i = 1, 2, ... , m. This concept is a natural extension of the graph theoretic notion of an Euler walk to the case of 3-uniform hypergraphs. We say that a 3-uniform hypergraph H is strongly connected if it has no isolated vertices and for each two edges e and f in H there is a sequence of edges starting with e and ending with f such that each two consecutive edges in this sequence have two vertices in common. In this paper we give an algorithm that constructs an Euler walk in a strongly connected 3-uniform hypergraph (it is known that such a walk in such a hypergraph always exists). The algorithm runs in time O(m), where m is the number of edges in the input hypergraph.

Section:
Discrete Algorithms

We present theoretical and computational results on alpha-labelings of trees. The theorems proved in this paper were inspired by the results of a computer investigation of alpha-labelings of all trees with up to 26 vertices, all trees with maximum degree 3 and up to 36 vertices, all trees with maximum degree 4 and up to 32 vertices and all trees with maximum degree 5 and up to 31 vertices. We generalise a criterion for trees to have nonzero alpha-deficit, and prove an unexpected result on the alpha-deficit of trees with a vertex of large degree compared to the order of the tree.

Section:
Graph Theory

The join of two varieties is the smallest variety containing both. In finite semigroup theory, the varieties of R-trivial and L-trivial monoids are two of the most prominent classes of finite monoids. Their join is known to be decidable due to a result of Almeida and Azevedo. In this paper, we give a new proof for Almeida and Azevedo's effective characterization of the join of R-trivial and L-trivial monoids. This characterization is a single identity of omega-terms using three variables.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics