# Vol. 14 no. 2

### 1. Random Cayley digraphs of diameter 2 and given degree

We consider random Cayley digraphs of order n with uniformly distributed generating sets of size k. Specifically, we are interested in the asymptotics of the probability that such a Cayley digraph has diameter two as n -> infinity and k = f(n), focusing on the functions f(n) = left perpendicularn(delta)right perpendicular and f(n) = left perpendicularcnright perpendicular. In both instances we show that this probability converges to 1 as n -> infinity for arbitrary fixed delta is an element of (1/2, 1) and c is an element of (0, 1/2), respectively, with a much larger convergence rate in the second case and with sharper results for Abelian groups.
Section: Graph Theory

### 2. The competition number of a generalized line graph is at most two

In 1982, Opsut showed that the competition number of a line graph is at most two and gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the competition number of a line graph being one. In this paper, we generalize this result to the competition numbers of generalized line graphs, that is, we show that the competition number of a generalized line graph is at most two, and give necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for the competition number of a generalized line graph being one.
Section: Graph Theory

### 3. On bipartite powers of bigraphs

The notion of graph powers is a well-studied topic in graph theory and its applications. In this paper, we investigate a bipartite analogue of graph powers, which we call bipartite powers of bigraphs. We show that the classes of bipartite permutation graphs and interval bigraphs are closed under taking bipartite power. We also show that the problem of recognizing bipartite powers is NP-complete in general.
Section: Graph Theory

### 4. On neighbour-distinguishing colourings from lists

An edge colouring of a graph is said to be neighbour-distinguishing if any two adjacent vertices have distinct sets of colours of their incident edges. In this paper the list version of the problem of determining the minimum number of colours in a neighbour-distinguishing colouring of a given graph is considered.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 5. Random Horn formulas and propagation connectivity for directed hypergraphs

We consider the property that in a random definite Horn formula of size-3 clauses over n variables, where every such clause is included with probability p, there is a pair of variables for which forward chaining produces all other variables. We show that with high probability the property does not hold for p <= 1/(11n ln n), and does hold for p >= (5 1n ln n)/(n ln n).
Section: Combinatorics

### 6. Some results on stable sets for k-colorable P₆-free graphs and generalizations

This article deals with the Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS) problem (and some other related NP-hard problems) and the class of P-6-free graphs. The complexity status of MWS is open for P-6-free graphs and is open even for P-5-free graphs (as a long standing open problem). Several results are known for MWS on subclasses of P-5-free: in particular, MWS can be solved for k-colorable P-5-free graphs in polynomial time for every k (depending on k) and more generally for (P-5, K-p)-free graphs (depending on p), which is a useful result since for every graph G one can easily compute a k-coloring of G, with k not necessarily minimum. This article studies the MWS problem for k-colorable P-6-free graphs and more generally for (P-6, K-p)-free graphs. Though we were not able to define a polynomial time algorithm for this problem for every k, this article introduces: (i) some structure properties of P-6-free graphs with respect to stable sets, (ii) two reductions for MWS on (P-6; K-p)-free graphs for every p, (iii) three polynomial time algorithms to solve MWS respectively for 3-colorable P-6-free, for 4-colorable P-6-free, and for (P-6, K-4)-free graphs (the latter allows one to state, together with other known results, that MWS can be solved for (P-6, F)-free graphs in polynomial time where F is any four vertex graph).
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 7. On paths, trails and closed trails in edge-colored graphs

In this paper we deal from an algorithmic perspective with different questions regarding properly edge-colored (or PEC) paths, trails and closed trails. Given a c-edge-colored graph G(c), we show how to polynomially determine, if any, a PEC closed trail subgraph whose number of visits at each vertex is specified before hand. As a consequence, we solve a number of interesting related problems. For instance, given subset S of vertices in G(c), we show how to maximize in polynomial time the number of S-restricted vertex (resp., edge) disjoint PEC paths (resp., trails) in G(c) with endpoints in S. Further, if G(c) contains no PEC closed trails, we show that the problem of finding a PEC s-t trail visiting a given subset of vertices can be solved in polynomial time and prove that it becomes NP-complete if we are restricted to graphs with no PEC cycles. We also deal with graphs G(c) containing no (almost) PEC cycles or closed trails through s or t. We prove that finding 2 PEC s-t paths (resp., trails) with length at most L > 0 is NP-complete in the strong sense even for graphs with maximum degree equal to 3 and present an approximation algorithm for computing k vertex (resp., edge) disjoint PEC s-t paths (resp., trails) so that the maximum path (resp., trail) length is no more than k times the PEC path (resp., trail) length in an optimal solution. Further, we prove that finding 2 vertex disjoint s-t paths with exactly one PEC s-t path is NP-complete. This result is interesting […]
Section: Graph Theory

### 8. Graphs with many vertex-disjoint cycles

We study graphs G in which the maximum number of vertex-disjoint cycles nu(G) is close to the cyclomatic number mu(G), which is a natural upper bound for nu(G). Our main result is the existence of a finite set P(k) of graphs for all k is an element of N-0 such that every 2-connected graph G with mu(G)-nu(G) = k arises by applying a simple extension rule to a graph in P(k). As an algorithmic consequence we describe algorithms calculating minmu(G)-nu(G), k + 1 in linear time for fixed k.
Section: Graph Theory

### 9. The asymmetric leader election algorithm with Swedish stopping: a probabilistic analysis

We study a leader election protocol that we call the Swedish leader election protocol. This name comes from a protocol presented by L. Bondesson, T. Nilsson, and G. Wikstrand (2007). The goal is to select one among n > 0 players, by proceeding through a number of rounds. If there is only one player remaining, the protocol stops and the player is declared the leader. Otherwise, all remaining players flip a biased coin; with probability q the player survives to the next round, with probability p = 1 - q the player loses (is killed) and plays no further ... unless all players lose in a given round (null round), so all of them play again. In the classical leader election protocol, any number of null rounds may take place, and with probability 1 some player will ultimately be elected. In the Swedish leader election protocol there is a maximum number tau of consecutive null rounds, and if the threshold is attained the protocol fails without declaring a leader. In this paper, several parameters are asymptotically analyzed, among them: Success Probability, Number of rounds R-n, Number of null rounds T-n. This paper is a companion paper to Louchard, Martinez and Prodinger (2011) where De-Poissonization was used, together with the Mellin transform. While this works fine as far as it goes, there are limitations, in particular of a computational nature. The approach chosen here is similar to earlier efforts of the same authors - Louchard and Prodinger (2004,2005,2009). Identifying […]
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 10. The analysis of find and versions of it

In the running time analysis of the algorithm Find and versions of it appear as limiting distributions solutions of stochastic fixed points equation of the form X D = Sigma(i) AiXi o Bi + C on the space D of cadlag functions. The distribution of the D-valued process X is invariant by some random linear affine transformation of space and random time change. We show the existence of solutions in some generality via the Weighted Branching Process. Finite exponential moments are connected to stochastic fixed point of supremum type X D = sup(i) (A(i)X(i) + C-i) on the positive reals. Specifically we present a running time analysis of m-median and adapted versions of Find. The finite dimensional distributions converge in L-1 and are continuous in the cylinder coordinates. We present the optimal adapted version in the sense of low asymptotic average number of comparisons. The limit distribution of the optimal adapted version of Find is a point measure on the function [0, 1] there exists t -> 1 + mint, 1 - t.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 11. Immersion containment and connectivity in color-critical graphs

The relationship between graph coloring and the immersion order is considered. Vertex connectivity, edge connectivity and related issues are explored. It is shown that a t-chromatic graph G contains either an immersed Kt or an immersed t-chromatic subgraph that is both 4-vertex-connected and t-edge-connected. This gives supporting evidence of our conjecture that if G requires at least t colors, then Kt is immersed in G.
Section: Graph Theory

### 12. Acyclic chromatic index of fully subdivided graphs and Halin graphs

An acyclic edge coloring of a graph is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles. The acyclic chromatic index of a graph is the minimum number k such that there is an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by a'(G). A graph G is called fully subdivided if it is obtained from another graph H by replacing every edge by a path of length at least two. Fully subdivided graphs are known to be acyclically edge colorable using Δ+1 colors since they are properly contained in 2-degenerate graphs which are acyclically edge colorable using Δ+1 colors. Muthu, Narayanan and Subramanian gave a simple direct proof of this fact for the fully subdivided graphs. Fiamcik has shown that if we subdivide every edge in a cubic graph with at most two exceptions to get a graph G, then a'(G)=3. In this paper we generalise the bound to Δ for all fully subdivided graphs improving the result of Muthu et al. In particular, we prove that if G is a fully subdivided graph and Δ(G) ≥3, then a'(G)=Δ(G). Consider a graph G=(V,E), with E=E(T) ∪E(C) where T is a rooted tree on the vertex set V and C is a simple cycle on the leaves of T. Such a graph G is called a Halin graph if G has a planar embedding and T has no vertices of degree 2. Let Kn denote a complete graph on n vertices. Let G be a Halin graph with maximum degree Δ. We prove that, a'(G) = 5 if G is K4, 4 if Δ = 3 and G is not K4, and Δ otherwise.
Section: Graph Theory

### 13. On 4-valent Frobenius circulant graphs

A 4-valent first-kind Frobenius circulant graph is a connected Cayley graph DLn(1, h) = Cay(Zn, H) on the additive group of integers modulo n, where each prime factor of n is congruent to 1 modulo 4 and H = {, [h], −, −[h]} with h a solution to the congruence equation x 2 + 1 ≡ 0 (mod n). In [A. Thomson and S. Zhou, Frobenius circulant graphs of valency four, J. Austral. Math. Soc. 85 (2008), 269-282] it was proved that such graphs admit 'perfect ' routing and gossiping schemes in some sense, making them attractive candidates for modelling interconnection networks. In the present paper we prove that DLn(1, h) has the smallest possible broadcasting time, namely its diameter plus two, and we explicitly give an optimal broadcasting in DLn(1, h). Using number theory we prove that it is possible to recursively construct larger 4-valent first-kind Frobenius circulants from smaller ones, and we give a methodology for such a construction. These and existing results suggest that, among all 4-valent circulant graphs, 4-valent first-kind Frobenius circulants are extremely efficient in terms of routing, gossiping, broadcasting and recursive construction.
Section: Graph Theory

### 14. Digraph complexity measures and applications in formal language theory

We investigate structural complexity measures on digraphs, in particular the cycle rank. This concept is intimately related to a classical topic in formal language theory, namely the star height of regular languages. We explore this connection, and obtain several new algorithmic insights regarding both cycle rank and star height. Among other results, we show that computing the cycle rank is NP-complete, even for sparse digraphs of maximum outdegree 2. Notwithstanding, we provide both a polynomial-time approximation algorithm and an exponential-time exact algorithm for this problem. The former algorithm yields an O((log n)^(3/2))- approximation in polynomial time, whereas the latter yields the optimum solution, and runs in time and space O*(1.9129^n) on digraphs of maximum outdegree at most two. Regarding the star height problem, we identify a subclass of the regular languages for which we can precisely determine the computational complexity of the star height problem. Namely, the star height problem for bideterministic languages is NP-complete, and this holds already for binary alphabets. Then we translate the algorithmic results concerning cycle rank to the bideterministic star height problem, thus giving a polynomial-time approximation as well as a reasonably fast exact exponential algorithm for bideterministic star height.
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

### 15. On quadratic threshold CSPs

A predicate P: {-1, 1}k →{0, 1} can be associated with a constraint satisfaction problem Max CSP(P). P is called ''approximation resistant'' if Max CSP(P) cannot be approximated better than the approximation obtained by choosing a random assignment, and ''approximable'' otherwise. This classification of predicates has proved to be an important and challenging open problem. Motivated by a recent result of Austrin and Mossel (Computational Complexity, 2009), we consider a natural subclass of predicates defined by signs of quadratic polynomials, including the special case of predicates defined by signs of linear forms, and supply algorithms to approximate them as follows. In the quadratic case we prove that every symmetric predicate is approximable. We introduce a new rounding algorithm for the standard semidefinite programming relaxation of Max CSP(P) for any predicate P: {-1, 1}k →{0, 1} and analyze its approximation ratio. Our rounding scheme operates by first manipulating the optimal SDP solution so that all the vectors are nearly perpendicular and then applying a form of hyperplane rounding to obtain an integral solution. The advantage of this method is that we are able to analyze the behaviour of a set of k rounded variables together as opposed to just a pair of rounded variables in most previous methods. In the linear case we prove that a predicate called ''Monarchy'' is approximable. This predicate is not amenable to our algorithm for the quadratic case, nor to other […]
Section: Discrete Algorithms

### 16. Random graphs with bounded maximum degree: asymptotic structure and a logical limit law

For any fixed integer R≥2 we characterise the typical structure of undirected graphs with vertices 1,...,n and maximum degree R, as n tends to infinity. The information is used to prove that such graphs satisfy a labelled limit law for first-order logic. If R≥5 then also an unlabelled limit law holds.

### 17. A note on planar Ramsey numbers for a triangle versus wheels

For two given graphs G and H , the planar Ramsey number P R ( G; H ) is the smallest integer n such that every planar graph F on n vertices either contains a copy of G , or its complement contains a copy of H . In this paper, we determine all planar Ramsey numbers for a triangle versus wheels.
Section: Graph Theory

### 18. On the algebraic numbers computable by some generalized Ehrenfest urns

This article deals with some stochastic population protocols, motivated by theoretical aspects of distributed computing. We modelize the problem by a large urn of black and white balls from which at every time unit a fixed number of balls are drawn and their colors are changed according to the number of black balls among them. When the time and the number of balls both tend to infinity the proportion of black balls converges to an algebraic number. We prove that, surprisingly enough, not every algebraic number can be ''computed'' this way.

### 19. Secure frameproof codes through biclique covers

For a binary code Γ of length v, a v-word w produces by a set of codewords {w1,...,wr}⊆Γ if for all i=1,...,v, we have wi∈{w1i,...,wri} . We call a code r-secure frameproof of size t if |Γ|=t and for any v-word that is produced by two sets C1 and C2 of size at most r then the intersection of these sets is nonempty. A d-biclique cover of size v of a graph G is a collection of v-complete bipartite subgraphs of G such that each edge of G belongs to at least d of these complete bipartite subgraphs. In this paper, we show that for t≥2r, an r-secure frameproof code of size t and length v exists if and only if there exists a 1-biclique cover of size v for the Kneser graph KG(t,r) whose vertices are all r-subsets of a t-element set and two r-subsets are adjacent if their intersection is empty. Then we investigate some connection between the minimum size of d-biclique covers of Kneser graphs and cover-free families, where an (r,w;d) cover-free family is a family of subsets of a finite set such that the intersection of any r members of the family contains at least d elements that are not in the union of any other w members. Also, we present an upper bound for 1-biclique covering number of Kneser graphs.
Section: Graph Theory

### 20. Upper k-tuple domination in graphs

For a positive integer k, a k-tuple dominating set of a graph G is a subset S of V (G) such that |N [v] ∩ S| ≥ k for every vertex v, where N [v] = {v} ∪ {u ∈ V (G) : uv ∈ E(G)}. The upper k-tuple domination number of G, denoted by Γ×k (G), is the maximum cardinality of a minimal k-tuple dominating set of G. In this paper we present an upper bound on Γ×k (G) for r-regular graphs G with r ≥ k, and characterize extremal graphs achieving the upper bound. We also establish an upper bound on Γ×2 (G) for claw-free r-regular graphs. For the algorithmic aspect, we show that the upper k-tuple domination problem is NP-complete for bipartite graphs and for chordal graphs.
Section: Graph Theory