Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |
We introduce a new boundedness condition for affine permutations, motivated by the fruitful concept of periodic boundary conditions in statistical physics. We study pattern avoidance in bounded affine permutations. In particular, we show that if $\tau$ is one of the finite increasing oscillations, then every $\tau$-avoiding affine permutation satisfies the boundedness condition. We also explore the enumeration of pattern-avoiding affine permutations that can be decomposed into blocks, using analytic methods to relate their exact and asymptotic enumeration to that of the underlying ordinary permutations. Finally, we perform exact and asymptotic enumeration of the set of all bounded affine permutations of size $n$. A companion paper will focus on avoidance of monotone decreasing patterns in bounded affine permutations.
In this paper, we study the staircase encoding of permutations, which maps a permutation to a staircase grid with cells filled with permutations. We consider many cases, where restricted to a permutation class, the staircase encoding becomes a bijection to its image. We describe the image of those restrictions using independent sets of graphs weighted with permutations. We derive the generating function for the independent sets and then for their weighted counterparts. The bijections we establish provide the enumeration of permutation classes. We use our results to uncover some unbalanced Wilf-equivalences of permutation classes and outline how to do random sampling in the permutation classes. In particular, we cover the classes $\mathrm{Av}(2314,3124)$, $\mathrm{Av}(2413,3142)$, $\mathrm{Av}(2413,3124)$, $\mathrm{Av}(2413,2134)$ and $\mathrm{Av}(2314,2143)$, as well as many subclasses.
We give three applications of a recently-proven "Decomposition Lemma," which allows one to count preimages of certain sets of permutations under West's stack-sorting map $s$. We first enumerate the permutation class $s^{-1}(\text{Av}(231,321))=\text{Av}(2341,3241,45231)$, finding a new example of an unbalanced Wilf equivalence. This result is equivalent to the enumeration of permutations sortable by ${\bf B}\circ s$, where ${\bf B}$ is the bubble sort map. We then prove that the sets $s^{-1}(\text{Av}(231,312))$, $s^{-1}(\text{Av}(132,231))=\text{Av}(2341,1342,\underline{32}41,\underline{31}42)$, and $s^{-1}(\text{Av}(132,312))=\text{Av}(1342,3142,3412,34\underline{21})$ are counted by the so-called "Boolean-Catalan numbers," settling a conjecture of the current author and another conjecture of Hossain. This completes the enumerations of all sets of the form $s^{-1}(\text{Av}(\tau^{(1)},\ldots,\tau^{(r)}))$ for $\{\tau^{(1)},\ldots,\tau^{(r)}\}\subseteq S_3$ with the exception of the set $\{321\}$. We also find an explicit formula for $|s^{-1}(\text{Av}_{n,k}(231,312,321))|$, where $\text{Av}_{n,k}(231,312,321)$ is the set of permutations in $\text{Av}_n(231,312,321)$ with $k$ descents. This allows us to prove a conjectured identity involving Catalan numbers and order ideals in Young's lattice.
Flip-sort is a natural sorting procedure which raises fascinating combinatorial questions. It finds its roots in the seminal work of Knuth on stack-based sorting algorithms and leads to many links with permutation patterns. We present several structural, enumerative, and algorithmic results on permutations that need few (resp. many) iterations of this procedure to be sorted. In particular, we give the shape of the permutations after one iteration, and characterize several families of permutations related to the best and worst cases of flip-sort. En passant, we also give some links between pop-stack sorting, automata, and lattice paths, and introduce several tactics of bijective proofs which have their own interest.
Catalan words are particular growth-restricted words counted by the eponymous integer sequence. In this article we consider Catalan words avoiding a pair of patterns of length 3, pursuing the recent initiating work of the first and last authors and of S. Kirgizov where (among other things) the enumeration of Catalan words avoiding a patterns of length 3 is completed. More precisely, we explore systematically the structural properties of the sets of words under consideration and give enumerating results by means of recursive decomposition, constructive bijections or bivariate generating functions with respect to the length and descent number. Some of the obtained enumerating sequences are known, and thus the corresponding results establish new combinatorial interpretations for them.
Defant, Engen, and Miller defined a permutation to be uniquely sorted if it has exactly one preimage under West's stack-sorting map. We enumerate classes of uniquely sorted permutations that avoid a pattern of length three and a pattern of length four by establishing bijections between these classes and various lattice paths. This allows us to prove nine conjectures of Defant.
In this paper, we enumerate Dumont permutations of the fourth kind avoiding or containing certain permutations of length 4. We also conjecture a Wilf-equivalence of two 4-letter patterns on Dumont permutations of the first kind.
A skew shape is the difference of two top-left justified Ferrers shapes sharing the same top-left corner. We study integer fillings of skew shapes. As our first main result, we show that for a specific hereditary class of skew shapes, which we call D-free shapes, the fillings that avoid a north-east chain of size $k$ are in bijection with fillings that avoid a south-east chain of the same size. Since Ferrers shapes are a subclass of D-free shapes, this result can be seen as a generalization of previous analogous results for Ferrers shapes. As our second main result, we construct a bijection between 01-fillings of an arbitrary skew shape that avoid a south-east chain of size 2, and the 01-fillings of the same shape that simultaneously avoid a north-east chain of size 2 and a particular non-square subfilling. This generalizes a previous result for transversal fillings.
Two permutation classes, the X-class and subpermutations of the increasing oscillation are shown to exhibit an exponential Wilf-collapse. This means that the number of distinct enumerations of principal subclasses of each of these classes grows much more slowly than the class itself whereas a priori, based only on symmetries of the class, there is no reason to expect this. The underlying cause of the collapse in both cases is the ability to apply some form of local symmetry which, combined with a greedy algorithm for detecting patterns in these classes, yields a Wilf-collapse.
As a step towards resolving a question of Ruškuc on the decidability of joint embedding for hereditary classes of permutations, which may be viewed as structures in a language of 2 linear orders, we show the corresponding problem is undecidable for hereditary classes of structures in a language of 3 linear orders.
We enumerate permutations in the two permutation classes $\text{Av}_n(312, 4321)$ and $\text{Av}_n(321, 4123)$ by the number of cycles each permutation admits. We also refine this enumeration with respect to several statistics.
We show that permutations avoiding both of the (classical) patterns 4321 and 3241 have the algebraic generating function conjectured by Vladimir Kruchinin.