vol. 22 no. 4

1. (Open) packing number of some graph products

Mojdeh, Doost Ali ; Peterin, Iztok ; Samadi, Babak ; Yero, Ismael G..
The packing number of a graph $G$ is the maximum number of closed neighborhoods of vertices in $G$ with pairwise empty intersections. Similarly, the open packing number of $G$ is the maximum number of open neighborhoods in $G$ with pairwise empty intersections. We consider the packing and open packing numbers on graph products. In particular we give a complete solution with respect to some properties of factors in the case of lexicographic and rooted products. For Cartesian, strong and direct products, we present several lower and upper bounds on these parameters.
Section: Graph Theory

2. A Type System Describing Unboundedness

Parys, Paweł.
We consider nondeterministic higher-order recursion schemes as recognizers of languages of finite words or finite trees. We propose a type system that allows to solve the simultaneous-unboundedness problem (SUP) for schemes, which asks, given a set of letters A and a scheme G, whether it is the case that for every number n the scheme accepts a word (a tree) in which every letter from A appears at least n times. Using this type system we prove that SUP is (m-1)-EXPTIME-complete for word-recognizing schemes of order m, and m-EXPTIME-complete for tree-recognizing schemes of order m. Moreover, we establish the reflection property for SUP: out of an input scheme G one can create its enhanced version that recognizes the same language but is aware of the answer to SUP.
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

3. A Büchi-Elgot-Trakhtenbrot theorem for automata with MSO graph storage

Engelfriet, Joost ; Vogler, Heiko.
We introduce MSO graph storage types, and call a storage type MSO-expressible if it is isomorphic to some MSO graph storage type. An MSO graph storage type has MSO-definable sets of graphs as storage configurations and as storage transformations. We consider sequential automata with MSO graph storage and associate with each such automaton a string language (in the usual way) and a graph language; a graph is accepted by the automaton if it represents a correct sequence of storage configurations for a given input string. For each MSO graph storage type, we define an MSO logic which is a subset of the usual MSO logic on graphs. We prove a Büchi-Elgot-Trakhtenbrot theorem, both for the string case and the graph case. Moreover, we prove that (i) each MSO graph transduction can be used as storage transformation in an MSO graph storage type, (ii) every automatic storage type is MSO-expressible, and (iii) the pushdown operator on storage types preserves the property of MSO-expressibility. Thus, the iterated pushdown storage types are MSO-expressible.
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

4. Evacuating Robots from a Disk Using Face-to-Face Communication

Czyzowicz, Jurek ; Georgiou, Konstantinos ; Kranakis, Evangelos ; Narayanan, Lata ; Opatrny, Jarda ; Vogtenhuber, Birgit.
Assume that two robots are located at the centre of a unit disk. Their goal is to evacuate from the disk through an exit at an unknown location on the boundary of the disk. At any time the robots can move anywhere they choose on the disk, independently of each other, with maximum speed $1$. The robots can cooperate by exchanging information whenever they meet. We study algorithms for the two robots to minimize the evacuation time: the time when both robots reach the exit. In [CGGKMP14] the authors gave an algorithm defining trajectories for the two robots yielding evacuation time at most $5.740$ and also proved that any algorithm has evacuation time at least $3+ \frac{\pi}{4} + \sqrt{2} \approx 5.199$. We improve both the upper and lower bound on the evacuation time of a unit disk. Namely, we present a new non-trivial algorithm whose evacuation time is at most $5.628$ and show that any algorithm has evacuation time at least $3+ \frac{\pi}{6} + \sqrt{3} \approx 5.255$. To achieve the upper bound, we designed an algorithm which proposes a forced meeting between the two robots, even if the exit has not been found by either of them. We also show that such a strategy is provably optimal for a related problem of searching for an exit placed at the vertices of a regular hexagon.
Section: Distributed Computing and Networking

5. A Double Exponential Lower Bound for the Distinct Vectors Problem

Pilipczuk, Marcin ; Sorge, Manuel.
In the (binary) Distinct Vectors problem we are given a binary matrix A with pairwise different rows and want to select at most k columns such that, restricting the matrix to these columns, all rows are still pairwise different. A result by Froese et al. [JCSS] implies a 2^2^(O(k)) * poly(|A|)-time brute-force algorithm for Distinct Vectors. We show that this running time bound is essentially optimal by showing that there is a constant c such that the existence of an algorithm solving Distinct Vectors with running time 2^(O(2^(ck))) * poly(|A|) would contradict the Exponential Time Hypothesis.
Section: Discrete Algorithms