# vol. 25:1

### 1. Cops and Robbers on Dynamic Graphs: Offline and Online Case

We examine the classic game of Cops and Robbers played on models of dynamic graphs, that is, graphs evolving over discrete time steps. At each time step, a graph instance is generated as a subgraph of the underlying graph of the model. The cops and the robber take their turns on the current graph instance. The cops win if they can capture the robber at some point in time. Otherwise, the robber wins. In the offline case, the players are fully aware of the evolution sequence, up to some finite time horizon T. We provide a O(n 2k+1 T) algorithm to decide whether a given evolution sequence for an underlying graph with n vertices is k-cop-win via a reduction to a reachability game. In the online case, there is no knowledge of the evolution sequence, and the game might go on forever. Also, each generated instance is required to be connected. We provide a nearly tight characterization for sparse underlying graphs, i.e., with at most linear number of edges. We prove λ + 1 cops suffice to capture the robber in any underlying graph with n − 1 + λ edges. Further, we define a family of underlying graphs with n−1+λ edges where λ−1 cops are necessary (and sufficient) for capture.
Section: Discrete Algorithms

### 2. Distinct Angles and Angle Chains in Three Dimensions

In 1946, Erdős posed the distinct distance problem, which seeks to find the minimum number of distinct distances between pairs of points selected from any configuration of $n$ points in the plane. The problem has since been explored along with many variants, including ones that extend it into higher dimensions. Less studied but no less intriguing is Erdős' distinct angle problem, which seeks to find point configurations in the plane that minimize the number of distinct angles. In their recent paper "Distinct Angles in General Position," Fleischmann, Konyagin, Miller, Palsson, Pesikoff, and Wolf use a logarithmic spiral to establish an upper bound of $O(n^2)$ on the minimum number of distinct angles in the plane in general position, which prohibits three points on any line or four on any circle. We consider the question of distinct angles in three dimensions and provide bounds on the minimum number of distinct angles in general position in this setting. We focus on pinned variants of the question, and we examine explicit constructions of point configurations in $\mathbb{R}^3$ which use self-similarity to minimize the number of distinct angles. Furthermore, we study a variant of the distinct angles question regarding distinct angle chains and provide bounds on the minimum number of distinct chains in $\mathbb{R}^2$ and $\mathbb{R}^3$.
Section: Combinatorics

### 3. How to construct the symmetric cycle of length 5 using Hajós construction with an adapted Rank Genetic Algorithm

In 2020 Bang-Jensen et. al. generalized the Hajós join of two graphs to the class of digraphs and generalized several results for vertex colorings in digraphs. Although, as a consequence of these results, a digraph can be obtained by Hajós constructions (directed Hajós join and identifying non-adjacent vertices), determining the Hajós constructions to obtain the digraph is a complex problem. In particular, Bang-Jensen et al. posed the problem of determining the Hajós operations to construct the symmetric 5-cycle from the complete symmetric digraph of order 3 using only Hajós constructions. We successfully adapted a rank-based genetic algorithm to solve this problem by the introduction of innovative recombination and mutation operators from graph theory. The Hajós Join became the recombination operator and the identification of independent vertices became the mutation operator. In this way, we were able to obtain a sequence of only 16 Hajós operations to construct the symmetric cycle of order 5.
Section: Discrete Algorithms

### 4. New Results on Directed Edge Dominating Set

We study a family of generalizations of Edge Dominating Set on directed graphs called Directed $(p,q)$-Edge Dominating Set. In this problem an arc $(u,v)$ is said to dominate itself, as well as all arcs which are at distance at most $q$ from $v$, or at distance at most $p$ to $u$. First, we give significantly improved FPT algorithms for the two most important cases of the problem, $(0,1)$-dEDS and $(1,1)$-dEDS (that correspond to versions of Dominating Set on line graphs), as well as polynomial kernels. We also improve the best-known approximation for these cases from logarithmic to constant. In addition, we show that $(p,q)$-dEDS is FPT parameterized by $p+q+tw$, but W-hard parameterized by $tw$ (even if the size of the optimal is added as a second parameter), where $tw$ is the treewidth of the underlying graph of the input. We then go on to focus on the complexity of the problem on tournaments. Here, we provide a complete classification for every possible fixed value of $p,q$, which shows that the problem exhibits a surprising behavior, including cases which are in P; cases which are solvable in quasi-polynomial time but not in P; and a single case $(p=q=1)$ which is NP-hard (under randomized reductions) and cannot be solved in sub-exponential time, under standard assumptions.

### 5. Optimal Space Lower Bound for Deterministic Self-Stabilizing Leader Election Algorithms

Given a boolean predicate $\Pi$ on labeled networks (e.g., proper coloring, leader election, etc.), a self-stabilizing algorithm for $\Pi$ is a distributed algorithm that can start from any initial configuration of the network (i.e., every node has an arbitrary value assigned to each of its variables), and eventually converge to a configuration satisfying $\Pi$. It is known that leader election does not have a deterministic self-stabilizing algorithm using a constant-size register at each node, i.e., for some networks, some of their nodes must have registers whose sizes grow with the size $n$ of the networks. On the other hand, it is also known that leader election can be solved by a deterministic self-stabilizing algorithm using registers of $O(\log \log n)$ bits per node in any $n$-node bounded-degree network. We show that this latter space complexity is optimal. Specifically, we prove that every deterministic self-stabilizing algorithm solving leader election must use $\Omega(\log \log n)$-bit per node registers in some $n$-node networks. In addition, we show that our lower bounds go beyond leader election, and apply to all problems that cannot be solved by anonymous algorithms.
Section: Distributed Computing and Networking

### 6. Zero-sum partitions of Abelian groups of order $2^n$

The following problem has been known since the 80's. Let $\Gamma$ be an Abelian group of order $m$ (denoted $|\Gamma|=m$), and let $t$ and $m_i$, $1 \leq i \leq t$, be positive integers such that $\sum_{i=1}^t m_i=m-1$. Determine when $\Gamma^*=\Gamma\setminus\{0\}$, the set of non-zero elements of $\Gamma$, can be partitioned into disjoint subsets $S_i$, $1 \leq i \leq t$, such that $|S_i|=m_i$ and $\sum_{s\in S_i}s=0$ for every $i$, $1 \leq i \leq t$. It is easy to check that $m_i\geq 2$ (for every $i$, $1 \leq i \leq t$) and $|I(\Gamma)|\neq 1$ are necessary conditions for the existence of such partitions, where $I(\Gamma)$ is the set of involutions of $\Gamma$. It was proved that the condition $m_i\geq 2$ is sufficient if and only if $|I(\Gamma)|\in\{0,3\}$. For other groups (i.e., for which $|I(\Gamma)|\neq 3$ and $|I(\Gamma)|>1$), only the case of any group $\Gamma$ with $\Gamma\cong(Z_2)^n$ for some positive integer $n$ has been analyzed completely so far, and it was shown independently by several authors that $m_i\geq 3$ is sufficient in this case. Moreover, recently Cichacz and Tuza proved that, if $|\Gamma|$ is large enough and $|I(\Gamma)|>1$, then $m_i\geq 4$ is sufficient. In this paper we generalize this result for every Abelian group of order $2^n$. Namely, we show that the condition $m_i\geq 3$ is sufficient for $\Gamma$ such that $|I(\Gamma)|>1$ and $|\Gamma|=2^n$, for every positive integer $n$. We also present some applications of this result […]
Section: Combinatorics

### 7. Destroying Multicolored Paths and Cycles in Edge-Colored Graphs

We study the computational complexity of $c$-Colored $P_\ell$ Deletion and $c$-Colored $C_\ell$ Deletion. In these problems, one is given a $c$-edge-colored graph and wants to destroy all induced $c$-colored paths or cycles, respectively, on $\ell$ vertices by deleting at most $k$ edges. Herein, a path or cycle is $c$-colored if it contains edges of $c$ distinct colors. We show that $c$-Colored $P_\ell$ Deletion and $c$-Colored $C_\ell$ Deletion are NP-hard for each non-trivial combination of $c$ and $\ell$. We then analyze the parameterized complexity of these problems. We extend the notion of neighborhood diversity to edge-colored graphs and show that both problems are fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the colored neighborhood diversity of the input graph. We also provide hardness results to outline the limits of parameterization by the standard parameter solution size $k$. Finally, we consider bicolored input graphs and show a special case of $2$-Colored $P_4$ Deletion that can be solved in polynomial time.
Section: Graph Theory

### 8. Span of a Graph: Keeping the Safety Distance

Inspired by Lelek's idea from [Disjoint mappings and the span of spaces, Fund. Math. 55 (1964), 199 -- 214], we introduce the novel notion of the span of graphs. Using this, we solve the problem of determining the \emph{maximal safety distance} two players can keep at all times while traversing a graph. Moreover, their moves must be made with respect to certain move rules. For this purpose, we introduce different variants of a span of a given connected graph. All the variants model the maximum safety distance kept by two players in a graph traversal, where the players may only move with accordance to a specific set of rules, and their goal: visit either all vertices, or all edges. For each variant, we show that the solution can be obtained by considering only connected subgraphs of a graph product and the projections to the factors. We characterise graphs in which it is impossible to keep a positive safety distance at all moments in time. Finally, we present a polynomial time algorithm that determines the chosen span variant of a given graph.
Section: Graph Theory

### 9. Small Youden Rectangles, Near Youden Rectangles, and Their Connections to Other Row-Column Designs

In this paper we first study $k \times n$ Youden rectangles of small orders. We have enumerated all Youden rectangles for a range of small parameter values, excluding the almost square cases where $k = n-1$, in a large scale computer search. In particular, we verify the previous counts for $(n,k) = (7,3), (7,4)$, and extend this to the cases $(11,5), (11,6), (13,4)$ and $(21,5)$. For small parameter values where no Youden rectangles exist, we also enumerate rectangles where the number of symbols common to two columns is always one of two possible values, differing by 1, which we call \emph{near Youden rectangles}. For all the designs we generate, we calculate the order of the autotopism group and investigate to which degree a certain transformation can yield other row-column designs, namely double arrays, triple arrays and sesqui arrays. Finally, we also investigate certain Latin rectangles with three possible pairwise intersection sizes for the columns and demonstrate that these can give rise to triple and sesqui arrays which cannot be obtained from Youden rectangles, using the transformation mentioned above.
Section: Combinatorics

### 10. From branchings to flows: a study of an Edmonds' like property to arc-disjoint branching flows

An s-branching flow f in a network N = (D, u), where u is the capacity function, is a flow thatreaches every vertex in V(D) from s while loosing exactly one unit of flow in each vertex other thans. Bang-Jensen and Bessy [TCS, 2014] showed that, when every arc has capacity n − 1, a network Nadmits k arc-disjoint s-branching flows if and only if its associated digraph D contains k arc-disjoints-branchings. Thus a classical result by Edmonds stating that a digraph contains k arc-disjoints-branchings if and only if the indegree of every set X ⊆ V (D) \ {s} is at least k also characterizesthe existence of k arc-disjoint s-branching flows in those networks, suggesting that the larger thecapacities are, the closer an s-branching flow is from simply being an s-branching. This observationis further implied by results by Bang-Jensen et al. [DAM, 2016] showing that there is a polynomialalgorithm to find the flows (if they exist) when every arc has capacity n − c, for every fixed c ≥ 1,and that such an algorithm is unlikely to exist for most other choices of the capacities. In this paper,we investigate how a property that is a natural extension of the characterization by Edmonds’ relatesto the existence of k arc-disjoint s-branching flows in networks. Although this property is alwaysnecessary for the existence of the flows, we show that it is not always sufficient and that it is hardto decide if the desired flows exist even if we know beforehand that the network satisfies it. […]
Section: Graph Theory

### 11. The Variance and the Asymptotic Distribution of the Length of Longest $k$-alternating Subsequences

We obtain an explicit formula for the variance of the number of $k$-peaks in a uniformly random permutation. This is then used to obtain an asymptotic formula for the variance of the length of longest $k$-alternating subsequence in random permutations. Also a central limit is proved for the latter statistic.
Section: Combinatorics

### 12. Rainbow vertex pair-pancyclicity of strongly edge-colored graphs

An edge-colored graph is \emph{rainbow }if no two edges of the graph have the same color. An edge-colored graph $G^c$ is called \emph{properly colored} if every two adjacent edges of $G^c$ receive distinct colors in $G^c$. A \emph{strongly edge-colored} graph is a proper edge-colored graph such that every path of length $3$ is rainbow. We call an edge-colored graph $G^c$ \emph{rainbow vertex pair-pancyclic} if any two vertices in $G^c$ are contained in a rainbow cycle of length $\ell$ for each $\ell$ with $3 \leq \ell \leq n$. In this paper, we show that every strongly edge-colored graph $G^c$ of order $n$ with minimum degree $\delta \geq \frac{2n}{3}+1$ is rainbow vertex pair-pancyclicity.
Section: Graph Theory

### 13. Several Roman domination graph invariants on Kneser graphs

This paper considers the following three Roman domination graph invariants on Kneser graphs: Roman domination, total Roman domination, and signed Roman domination. For Kneser graph $K_{n,k}$, we present exact values for Roman domination number $\gamma_{R}(K_{n,k})$ and total Roman domination number $\gamma_{tR}(K_{n,k})$ proving that for $n\geqslant k(k+1)$, $\gamma_{R}(K_{n,k}) =\gamma_{tR}(K_{n,k}) = 2(k+1)$. For signed Roman domination number $\gamma_{sR}(K_{n,k})$, the new lower and upper bounds for $K_{n,2}$ are provided: we prove that for $n\geqslant 12$, the lower bound is equal to 2, while the upper bound depends on the parity of $n$ and is equal to 3 if $n$ is odd, and equal to $5$ if $n$ is even. For graphs of smaller dimensions, exact values are found by applying exact methods from literature.
Section: Graph Theory

### 14. A new discrete theory of pseudoconvexity

Recently geometric hypergraphs that can be defined by intersections of pseudohalfplanes with a finite point set were defined in a purely combinatorial way. This led to extensions of earlier results about points and halfplanes to pseudohalfplanes, including polychromatic colorings and discrete Helly-type theorems about pseudohalfplanes. Here we continue this line of research and introduce the notion of convex sets of such pseudohalfplane hypergraphs. In this context we prove several results corresponding to classical results about convexity, namely Helly's Theorem, Carathéodory's Theorem, Kirchberger's Theorem, Separation Theorem, Radon's Theorem and the Cup-Cap Theorem. These results imply the respective results about pseudoconvex sets in the plane defined using pseudohalfplanes. It turns out that most of our results can be also proved using oriented matroids and topological affine planes (TAPs) but our approach is different from both of them. Compared to oriented matroids, our theory is based on a linear ordering of the vertex set which makes our definitions and proofs quite different and perhaps more elementary. Compared to TAPs, which are continuous objects, our proofs are purely combinatorial and again quite different in flavor. Altogether, we believe that our new approach can further our understanding of these fundamental convexity results.
Section: Combinatorics

### 15. Gallai's Path Decomposition for 2-degenerate Graphs

Gallai's path decomposition conjecture states that if $G$ is a connected graph on $n$ vertices, then the edges of $G$ can be decomposed into at most $\lceil \frac{n }{2} \rceil$ paths. A graph is said to be an odd semi-clique if it can be obtained from a clique on $2k+1$ vertices by deleting at most $k-1$ edges. Bonamy and Perrett asked if the edges of every connected graph $G$ on $n$ vertices can be decomposed into at most $\lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor$ paths unless $G$ is an odd semi-clique. A graph $G$ is said to be 2-degenerate if every subgraph of $G$ has a vertex of degree at most $2$. In this paper, we prove that the edges of any connected 2-degenerate graph $G$ on $n$ vertices can be decomposed into at most $\lfloor \frac{n }{2} \rfloor$ paths unless $G$ is a triangle.
Section: Graph Theory

### 16. A note on limits of sequences of binary trees

We discuss a notion of convergence for binary trees that is based on subtree sizes. In analogy to recent developments in the theory of graphs, posets and permutations we investigate some general aspects of the topology, such as a characterization of the set of possible limits and its structure as a metric space. For random trees the subtree size topology arises in the context of algorithms for searching and sorting when applied to random input, resulting in a sequence of nested trees. For these we obtain a structural result based on a local version of exchangeability. This in turn leads to a central limit theorem, with possibly mixed asymptotic normality.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 17. Bounds on the Twin-Width of Product Graphs

Twin-width is a graph width parameter recently introduced by Bonnet, Kim, Thomassé & Watrigant. Given two graphs $G$ and $H$ and a graph product $\star$, we address the question: is the twin-width of $G\star H$ bounded by a function of the twin-widths of $G$ and $H$ and their maximum degrees? It is known that a bound of this type holds for strong products (Bonnet, Geniet, Kim, Thomassé & Watrigant; SODA 2021). We show that bounds of the same form hold for Cartesian, tensor/direct, corona, rooted, replacement, and zig-zag products. For the lexicographical product it is known that the twin-width of the product of two graphs is exactly the maximum of the twin-widths of the individual graphs (Bonnet, Kim, Reinald, Thomassé & Watrigant; IPEC 2021). In contrast, for the modular product we show that no bound can hold. In addition, we provide examples showing many of our bounds are tight, and give improved bounds for certain classes of graphs.
Section: Graph Theory