# Vol. 9 no. 1

### 1. Waiting time distributions for pattern occurrence in a constrained sequence

A binary sequence of zeros and ones is called a (d; k)-sequence if it does not contain runs of zeros of length either lessthan d or greater than k, where d and k are arbitrary, but fixed, non-negative integers and d < k. Such sequences find requires that (d; k)-sequences do not contain a specific pattern w. Therefore, distribution results concerning pattern occurrence in (d; k)-sequences are of interest. In this paper we study the distribution of the waiting time until the r-th occurrence of a pattern w in a random (d; k)-sequence generated by a Markov source. Numerical examples are also provided.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 2. On the complexity of the balanced vertex ordering problem

We consider the problem of finding a balanced ordering of the vertices of a graph. More precisely, we want to minimise the sum, taken over all vertices v, of the difference between the number of neighbours to the left and right of v. This problem, which has applications in graph drawing, was recently introduced by Biedl et al. [Discrete Applied Math. 148:27―48, 2005]. They proved that the problem is solvable in polynomial time for graphs with maximum degree three, but NP-hard for graphs with maximum degree six. One of our main results is to close the gap in these results, by proving NP-hardness for graphs with maximum degree four. Furthermore, we prove that the problem remains NP-hard for planar graphs with maximum degree four and for 5-regular graphs. On the other hand, we introduce a polynomial time algorithm that determines whetherthere is a vertex ordering with total imbalance smaller than a fixed constant, and a polynomial time algorithm that determines whether a given multigraph with even degrees has an 'almost balanced' ordering.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 3. Approximation and inapproximability results on balanced connected partitions of graphs

Let G=(V,E) be a connected graph with a weight function w: V \to \mathbbZ₊, and let q ≥q 2 be a positive integer. For X⊆ V, let w(X) denote the sum of the weights of the vertices in X. We consider the following problem on G: find a q-partition P=(V₁,V₂, \ldots, V_q) of V such that G[V_i] is connected (1≤q i≤q q) and P maximizes \rm min\w(V_i): 1≤q i≤q q\. This problem is called \textitMax Balanced Connected q-Partition and is denoted by BCP_q. We show that for q≥q 2 the problem BCP_q is NP-hard in the strong sense, even on q-connected graphs, and therefore does not admit a FPTAS, unless \rm P=\rm NP. We also show another inapproximability result for BCP₂ on arbitrary graphs. On q-connected graphs, for q=2 the best result is a \frac43-approximation algorithm obtained by Chleb\'ıková; for q=3 and q=4 we present 2-approximation algorithms. When q is not fixed (it is part of the instance), the corresponding problem is called \textitMax Balanced Connected Partition, and denoted as BCP. We show that BCP does not admit an approximation algorithm with ratio smaller than 6/5, unless \rm P=\rm NP.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 4. Independent sets in graphs with an excluded clique minor

Let G be a graph with n vertices, with independence number α, and with no Kt+1-minor for some t ≥ 5. It is proved that (2α - 1)(2t - 5) ≥ 2n - 5. This improves upon the previous best bound whenever n≥2/5t2.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 5. A combinatorial and probabilistic study of initial and end heights of descents in samples of geometrically distributed random variables and in permutations

In words, generated by independent geometrically distributed random variables, we study the lth descent, which is, roughly speaking, the lth occurrence of a neighbouring pair ab with a>b. The value a is called the initial height, and b the end height. We study these two random variables (and some similar ones) by combinatorial and probabilistic tools. We find in all instances a generating function Ψ(v,u), where the coefficient of vjui refers to the jth descent (ascent), and i to the initial (end) height. From this, various conclusions can be drawn, in particular expected values. In the probabilistic part, a Markov chain model is used, which allows to get explicit expressions for the heights of the second descent. In principle, one could go further, but the complexity of the results forbids it. This is extended to permutations of a large number of elements. Methods from q-analysis are used to simplify the expressions. This is the reason that we confine ourselves to the geometric distribution only. For general discrete distributions, no such tools are available.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 6. Complexity results on graphs with few cliques

A graph class has few cliques if there is a polynomial bound on the number of maximal cliques contained in any member of the class. This restriction is equivalent to the requirement that any graph in the class has a polynomial sized intersection representation that satisfies the Helly property. On any such class of graphs, some problems that are NP-complete on general graphs, such as the maximum clique problem and the maximum weighted clique problem, admit polynomial time algorithms. Other problems, such as the vertex clique cover and edge clique cover problems remain NP-complete on these classes. Several classes of graphs which have few cliques are discussed, and the complexity of some partitioning and covering problems are determined for the class of all graphs which have fewer cliques than a given polynomial bound.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 7. On the tileability of polygons with colored dominoes

We consider questions concerning the tileability of orthogonal polygons with colored dominoes. A colored domino is a rotatable 2 × 1 rectangle that is partitioned into two unit squares, which are called faces, each of which is assigned a color. In a colored domino tiling of an orthogonal polygon P, a set of dominoes completely covers P such that no dominoes overlap and so that adjacent faces have the same color. We demonstrated that for simple layout polygons that can be tiled with colored dominoes, two colors are always sufficient. We also show that for tileable non-simple layout polygons, four colors are always sufficient and sometimes necessary. We describe an O(n) time algorithm for computing a colored domino tiling of a simple orthogonal polygon, if such a tiling exists, where n is the number of dominoes used in the tiling. We also show that deciding whether or not a non-simple orthogonal polygon can be tiled with colored dominoes is NP-complete.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 8. Arithmetics in β-numeration

The β-numeration, born with the works of Rényi and Parry, provides a generalization of the notions of integers, decimal numbers and rational numbers by expanding real numbers in base β, where β>1 is not an integer. One of the main differences with the case of numeration in integral base is that the sets which play the role of integers, decimal numbers and rational numbers in base β are not stable under addition or multiplication. In particular, a fractional part may appear when one adds or multiplies two integers in base β. When β is a Pisot number, which corresponds to the most studied case, the lengths of the finite fractional parts that may appear when one adds or multiplies two integers in base β are bounded by constants which only depend on β. We prove that, for any Perron number β, the set of finite or ultimately periodic fractional parts of the sum, or the product, of two integers in base β is finite. Additionally, we prove that it is possible to compute this set for the case of addition when β is a Parry number. As a consequence, we deduce that, when β is a Perron number, there exist bounds, which only depend on β, for the lengths of the finite fractional parts that may appear when one adds or multiplies two integers in base β. Moreover, when β is a Parry number, the bound associated with the case of addition can be explicitly computed.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 9. A perimeter enumeration of column-convex polyominoes

This work is concerned with the perimeter enumeration of column-convex polyominoes. We consider both the rectangular lattice and the hexagonal lattice. For the rectangular lattice, two formulas for the generating function (gf) already exist and, to all appearances, neither of them admits of a further simplification. We first rederive those two formulas (so as to make the paper self-contained), and then we enrich the rectangular lattice gf with some additional variables. That done, we make a change of variables, which (practically) produces the hexagonal lattice gf. This latter gf was first found by Lin and Wu in 1990. However, our present formula, in addition to having a simpler form, also allows a substantially easier Taylor series expansion. As to the methods, our one is descended from algebraic languages, whereas Lin and Wu used the Temperley methodology.
Section: Combinatorics

### 10. A lower bound for approximating the Grundy number

The grundy numbering of a graph is the maximum number of colors used by on-line first-fit coloring, under the worst order of arrival of vertices. The grundy numbering problem is to find this ordering. We prove that there is a constant c>1 so that approximating the grundy numbering problem within c is not possible, unless NP ⊆ RP
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 11. On the critical exponent of generalized Thue-Morse words

For certain generalized Thue-Morse words t, we compute the critical exponent, i.e., the supremum of the set of rational numbers that are exponents of powers in t, and determine exactly the occurrences of powers realizing it.
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

### 12. Tribes of cubic partial cubes

Partial cubes are graphs isometrically embeddable into hypercubes. Three infinite families and a few sporadic examples of cubic partial cubes are known. The concept of a tribe is introduced as means to systematize the known examples and establish relations among them. Efficient methods of computation of tribes are developed and several concrete tribes, that include known, as well as new cubic partial cubes, are computed by hand and with the use of a computer.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 13. Asymptotic behaviour of a non-commutative rational series with a nonnegative linear representation

We analyse the asymptotic behaviour in the mean of a non-commutative rational series, which originates from differential cryptanalysis, using tools from probability theory, and from analytic number theory. We derive a Fourier representation of a first-order summation function obtained by interpreting this rational series as a non-classical rational sequence via the octal numeration system. The method is applicable to a wide class of sequences rational with respect to a numeration system essentially under the condition that they admit a linear representation with nonnegative coefficients.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 14. Latin square Thue-Morse sequences are overlap-free

We define a morphism based upon a Latin square that generalizes the Thue-Morse morphism. We prove that fixed points of this morphism are overlap-free sequences, generalizing results of Allouche - Shallit and Frid.
Section: Automata, Logic and Semantics

### 15. Probe split graphs

An undirected graph G=(V,E) is a probe split graph if its vertex set can be partitioned into two sets, N (non-probes) and P (probes) where N is independent and there exists E' ⊆ N× N such that G'=(V,E∪ E') is a split graph. Recently Chang et al. gave an O(V4(V+E)) time recognition algorithm for probe split graphs. In this article we give O(V2+VE) time recognition algorithms and characterisations by forbidden induced subgraphs both for the case when the partition into probes and non-probes is given, and when it is not given.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 16. "Trivializing'' generalizations of some Izergin-Korepin-type determinants

We generalize (and hence trivialize and routinize) numerous explicit evaluations of determinants and pfaffians due to Kuperberg, as well as a determinant of Tsuchiya. The level of generality of our statements render their proofs easy and routine, by using Dodgson Condensation and/or Krattenthaler's factor exhaustion method.
Section: Combinatorics

### 17. Note on the weighted internal path length of b-ary trees

In a recent paper Broutin and Devroye (2005) have studied the height of a class of edge-weighted random trees.This is a class of trees growing in continuous time which includes many wellknown trees as examples. In this paper we derive a limit theorem for the internal path length for this class of trees.For the proof we extend a limit theorem in Neininger and Rüschendorf (2004) to recursive sequences of random variables with continuous time parameter.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 18. FP/FIFO scheduling: coexistence of deterministic and probabilistic QoS guarantees

In this paper, we focus on applications having quantitative QoS (Quality of Service) requirements on their end-to-end response time (or jitter). We propose a solution allowing the coexistence of two types of quantitative QoS garantees, deterministic and probabilistic, while providing a high resource utilization. Our solution combines the advantages of the deterministic approach and the probabilistic one. The deterministic approach is based on a worst case analysis. The probabilistic approach uses a mathematical model to obtain the probability that the response time exceeds a given value. We assume that flows are scheduled according to non-preemptive FP/FIFO. The packet with the highest fixed priority is scheduled first. If two packets share the same priority, the packet arrived first is scheduled first. We make no particular assumption concerning the flow priority and the nature of the QoS guarantee requested by the flow. An admission control derived from these results is then proposed, allowing each flow to receive a quantitative QoS guarantee adapted to its QoS requirements. An example illustrates the merits of the coexistence of deterministic and probabilistic QoS guarantees.
Section: Distributed Computing and Networking

### 19. Exponential bounds and tails for additive random recursive sequences

Exponential bounds and tail estimates are derived for additive random recursive sequences, which typically arise as functionals of recursive structures, of random trees or in recursive algorithms. In particular they arise as parameters of divide and conquer type algorithms. We derive tail bounds from estimates of the Laplace transforms and of the moment sequences. For the proof we use some classical exponential bounds and some variants of the induction method. The paper generalizes results of Rösler (% \citeyearNPRoesler:91, % \citeyearNPRoesler:92) and % \citeNNeininger:05 on subgaussian tails to more general classes of additive random recursive sequences. It also gives sufficient conditions for tail bounds of the form \exp(-a t^p) which are based on a characterization of \citeNKasahara:78.
Section: Analysis of Algorithms

### 20. On the kth Eigenvalues of Trees with Perfect Matchings

Résumé comportant des formules mathématiques, disponible sur le ficher pdf / Abstract with mathematical formulas, available on pdf file.
Section: Graph and Algorithms

### 21. Strong chromatic index of products of graphs

The strong chromatic index of a graph is the minimum number of colours needed to colour the edges in such a way that each colour class is an induced matching. In this paper, we present bounds for strong chromatic index of three different products of graphs in term of the strong chromatic index of each factor. For the cartesian product of paths, cycles or complete graphs, we derive sharper results. In particular, strong chromatic indices of d-dimensional grids and of some toroidal grids are given along with approximate results on the strong chromatic index of generalized hypercubes.
Section: Graph and Algorithms