Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |

Let G be a simple graph and let us color its edges so that the multisets of colors around each vertex are distinct. The smallest number of colors for which such a coloring exists is called the irregular coloring number of G and is denoted by c(G). We determine the exact value of the irregular coloring number for almost all 2-regular graphs. The results obtained provide new examples demonstrating that a conjecture by Burris is false. As another consequence, we also determine the value of a graph invariant called the point distinguishing index (where sets, instead of multisets, are required to be distinct) for the same family of graphs.

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

We show that for a planar graph with no g-grid minor there exists a tree-decomposition of width at most 5g - 6. The proof is constructive and simple. The underlying algorithm for the tree-decomposition runs in O(n(2) log n) time.

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

For each integer partition mu, let e (F) over tilde (mu)(q; t) be the coefficient of x(1) ... x(n) in the modified Macdonald polynomial (H) over tilde (mu). The polynomial (F) over tilde (mu)(q; t) can be regarded as the Hilbert series of a certain doubly-graded S(n)-module M(mu), or as a q, t-analogue of n! based on permutation statistics inv(mu) and maj(mu) that generalize the classical inversion and major index statistics. This paper uses the combinatorial definition of (F) over tilde (mu) to prove some recursions characterizing these polynomials, and other related ones, when mu is a two-column shape. Our result provides a complement to recent work of Garsia and Haglund, who proved a different recursion for two-column shapes by representation-theoretical methods. For all mu, we show that e (F) over tilde (mu)(q, t) is divisible by certain q-factorials and t-factorials depending on mu. We use our recursion and related tools to explain some of these factors bijectively. Finally, we present fermionic formulas that express e (F) over tilde ((2n)) (q, t) as a sum of q, t-analogues of n!2(n) indexed by perfect matchings.

Section:
Combinatorics

In this work we investigate the algorithmic complexity of computing a minimum C(k)-transversal, i.e., a subset of vertices that intersects all the chordless cycles with k vertices of the input graph, for a fixed k \textgreater= 3. For graphs of maximum degree at most three, we prove that this problem is polynomial-time solvable when k \textless= 4, and NP-hard otherwise. For graphs of maximum degree at most four, we prove that this problem is NP-hard for any fixed k \textgreater= 3. We also discuss polynomial-time approximation algorithms for computing C(3)-transversals in graphs of maximum degree at most four, based on a new decomposition theorem for such graphs that leads to useful reduction rules.

Section:
Graph and Algorithms

De Bruijn and Erdos proved that every noncollinear set of n points in the plane determines at least n distinct lines. Chen and Chvatal suggested a possible generalization of this theorem in the framework of metric spaces. We provide partial results in this direction.

Section:
Combinatorics

We study expansions in non-integer negative base -beta introduced by Ito and Sadahiro. Using countable automata associated with (-beta)-expansions, we characterize the case where the (-beta)-shift is a system of finite type. We prove that, if beta is a Pisot number, then the (-beta)-shift is a sofic system. In that case, addition (and more generally normalization on any alphabet) is realizable by a finite transducer. We then give an on-line algorithm for the conversion from positive base beta to negative base -beta. When beta is a Pisot number, the conversion can be realized by a finite on-line transducer.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

Monitoring physical phenomena in Sensor Networks requires guaranteeing permanent communication between nodes. Moreover, in an effective implementation of such infrastructure, the delay between any two consecutive communications should be minimized. The problem is challenging because, in a restricted Sensor Network, the communication is carried out through a single and shared radio channel without collision detection. Dealing with collisions is crucial to ensure effective communication between nodes. Additionally, minimizing them yields energy consumption minimization, given that sensing and computational costs in terms of energy are negligible with respect to radio communication. In this work, we present a deterministic recurrent-communication protocol for Sensor Networks. After an initial negotiation phase of the access pattern to the channel, each node running this protocol reaches a steady state, which is asymptotically optimal in terms of energy and time efficiency. As a by-product, a protocol for the synchronization of a Sensor Network is also proposed. Furthermore, the protocols are resilient to an arbitrary node power-up schedule and a general node failure model.

Section:
Distributed Computing and Networking