Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |
A function on an algebra is congruence preserving if, for any congruence, it maps pairs of congruent elements onto pairs of congruent elements. We show that on the algebra of binary trees whose leaves are labeled by letters of an alphabet containing at least three letters, a function is congruence preserving if and only if it is polynomial.
We assign a relational structure to any finite algebra in a canonical way, using solution sets of equations, and we prove that this relational structure is polymorphism-homogeneous if and only if the algebra itself is polymorphism-homogeneous. We show that polymorphism-homogeneity is also equivalent to the property that algebraic sets (i.e., solution sets of systems of equations) are exactly those sets of tuples that are closed under the centralizer clone of the algebra. Furthermore, we prove that the aforementioned properties hold if and only if the algebra is injective in the category of its finite subpowers. We also consider two additional conditions: a stronger variant for polymorphism-homogeneity and for injectivity, and we describe explicitly the finite semilattices, lattices, Abelian groups and monounary algebras satisfying any one of these three conditions.
The age $\mathcal{A}(G)$ of a graph $G$ (undirected and without loops) is the collection of finite induced subgraphs of $G$, considered up to isomorphy and ordered by embeddability. It is well-quasi-ordered (wqo) for this order if it contains no infinite antichain. A graph is \emph{path-minimal} if it contains finite induced paths of unbounded length and every induced subgraph $G'$ with this property embeds $G$. We construct $2^{\aleph_0}$ path-minimal graphs whose ages are pairwise incomparable with set inclusion and which are wqo. Our construction is based on uniformly recurrent sequences and lexicographical sums of labelled graphs.
The finite models of a universal sentence $\Phi$ in a finite relational signature are the age of a structure if and only if $\Phi$ has the joint embedding property. We prove that the computational problem whether a given universal sentence $\Phi$ has the joint embedding property is undecidable, even if $\Phi$ is additionally Horn and the signature of $\Phi$ only contains relation symbols of arity at most two.
We present the Boolean dimension of a graph, we relate it with the notions of inner, geometric and symplectic dimensions, and with the rank and minrank of a graph. We obtain an exact formula for the Boolean dimension of a tree in terms of a certain star decomposition. We relate the Boolean dimension with the inversion index of a tournament.
The ternary relation B(x,y,z) of betweenness states that an element y is between the elements x and z, in some sense depending on the considered structure. In a partially ordered set (N,≤), B(x,y,z):⇔x<y<z∨z<y<x, and the corresponding betweenness structure is (N,B). The class of betweenness structures of linear orders is first-order definable. That of partial orders is monadic second-order definable. An order-theoretic tree is a partial order such that the set of elements larger that any element is linearly ordered and any two elements have an upper-bound. Finite or infinite rooted trees ordered by the ancestor relation are order-theoretic trees. In an order-theoretic tree, B(x,y,z) means that x<y<z or z<y<x or x<y≤x⊔z or z<y≤x⊔z, where x⊔z is the least upper-bound of incomparable elements x and z. In a previous article, we established that the corresponding class of betweenness structures is monadic second-order definable.We prove here that the induced substructures of the betweenness structures of the countable order-theoretic trees form a monadic second-order definable class, denoted by IBO. The proof uses a variant of cographs, the partitioned probe cographs, and their known six finite minimal excluded induced subgraphs called the bounds of the class. This proof links two apparently unrelated topics: cographs and order-theoretic trees.However, the class IBO has finitely many bounds, i.e., minimal excluded finite induced […]
An equitable coloring of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a (proper) vertex-coloring of $G$, such that the sizes of any two color classes differ by at most one. In this paper, we consider the equitable coloring problem in block graphs. Recall that the latter are graphs in which each 2-connected component is a complete graph. The problem remains hard in the class of block graphs. In this paper, we present some graph theoretic results relating various parameters. Then we use them in order to trace some algorithmic implications, mainly dealing with the fixed-parameter tractability of the problem.
Let $D$ be an oriented graph. The inversion of a set $X$ of vertices in $D$ consists in reversing the direction of all arcs with both ends in $X$. The inversion number of $D$, denoted by ${\rm inv}(D)$, is the minimum number of inversions needed to make $D$ acyclic. Denoting by $\tau(D)$, $\tau' (D)$, and $\nu(D)$ the cycle transversal number, the cycle arc-transversal number and the cycle packing number of $D$ respectively, one shows that ${\rm inv}(D) \leq \tau' (D)$, ${\rm inv}(D) \leq 2\tau(D)$ and there exists a function $g$ such that ${\rm inv}(D)\leq g(\nu(D))$. We conjecture that for any two oriented graphs $L$ and $R$, ${\rm inv}(L\rightarrow R) ={\rm inv}(L) +{\rm inv}(R)$ where $L\rightarrow R$ is the dijoin of $L$ and $R$. This would imply that the first two inequalities are tight. We prove this conjecture when ${\rm inv}(L)\leq 1$ and ${\rm inv}(R)\leq 2$ and when ${\rm inv}(L) ={\rm inv}(R)=2$ and $L$ and $R$ are strongly connected. We also show that the function $g$ of the third inequality satisfies $g(1)\leq 4$. We then consider the complexity of deciding whether ${\rm inv}(D)\leq k$ for a given oriented graph $D$. We show that it is NP-complete for $k=1$, which together with the above conjecture would imply that it is NP-complete for every $k$. This contrasts with a result of Belkhechine et al. which states that deciding whether ${\rm inv}(T)\leq k$ for a given tournament $T$ is polynomial-time solvable.
Let $\Bigl\langle\matrix{n\cr k}\Bigr\rangle$, $\Bigl\langle\matrix{B_n\cr k}\Bigr\rangle$, and $\Bigl\langle\matrix{D_n\cr k}\Bigr\rangle$ be the Eulerian numbers in the types A, B, and D, respectively -- that is, the number of permutations of n elements with $k$ descents, the number of signed permutations (of $n$ elements) with $k$ type B descents, the number of even signed permutations (of $n$ elements) with $k$ type D descents. Let $S_n(t) = \sum_{k = 0}^{n-1} \Bigl\langle\matrix{n\cr k}\Bigr\rangle t^k$, $B_n(t) = \sum_{k = 0}^n \Bigl\langle\matrix{B_n\cr k}\Bigr\rangle t^k$, and $D_n(t) = \sum_{k = 0}^n \Bigl\langle\matrix{D_n\cr k}\Bigr\rangle t^k$. We give bijective proofs of the identity $$B_n(t^2) = (1 + t)^{n+1}S_n(t) - 2^n tS_n(t^2)$$ and of Stembridge's identity $$D_n(t) = B_n(t) - n2^{n-1}tS_{n-1}(t).$$ These bijective proofs rely on a representation of signed permutations as paths. Using this representation we also establish a bijective correspondence between even signed permutations and pairs $(w, E)$ with $([n], E)$ a threshold graph and $w$ a degree ordering of $([n], E)$, which we use to obtain bijective proofs of enumerative results for threshold graphs.
We focus on the maximum number of minimal transversals in 3-partite 3-uniform hypergraphs on n vertices. Those hypergraphs (and their minimal transversals) are commonly found in database applications. In this paper we prove that this number grows at least like 1.4977^n and at most like 1.5012^n.