Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |
This paper is a survey on our recent results about number conserving cellular automata. First, we prove the linear time decidability of the property of number conservation. The sequel focuses on dynamical evolutions of number conserving cellular automata.
Equicontinuity classification is a popular classification of cellular automata based on their dynamical behavior. In this paper we prove that most of its classes are undecidable.
In an effort to continue the pioneering work of Harary in USA and Flament in France, we have undertaken to develop, on an experimental basis, a formalized theory of systems of beliefs and their modifications. This theory uses the psycho-social concepts of theories of cognitive consistency and of the tools of discrete mathematics, such as rewriting and intervals within graphs. The axioms and rewriting rules are elaborated from experimental data, and we demonstrate that the system we have built has the property of termination. This result is in accordance with experimental observations that show that every subject having an inconsistent system of beliefs (i.e., one containing contradictions) makes this system evolve towards consistency to reach a simple, consistent reference framework.
Classifying cellular automata in order to capture the notion of chaos algorithmically is a challenging problem than can be tackled in many ways.We here give a classification based on the computation of a macroscopic parameter, the $d$-spectrum, and show how our classifying scheme can be used to separate the chaotic ECA from the non-chaotic ones.
The problem of counting monomer-dimer coverings of a lattice is a longstanding problem in statistical mechanics.It has only been exactly solved for the special case of dimer coverings in two dimensions ([Ka61], [TF61]). In earlier work, Stanley [St85] proved a reciprocity principle governing the number $N(m,n)$ of dimer coverings of an $m$ by $n$ rectangular grid (also known as perfect matchings), where $m$ is fixed and $n$ is allowed to vary. As reinterpreted by Propp [P01], Stanley's result concerns the unique way of extending $N(m,n)$ to $n<0$ so that the resulting bi-infinite sequence, $N(m,n)$ for $n \in \mathbb{Z}$, satisfies a linear recurrence relation with constant coefficients. In particular, Stanley shows that $N(m,n)$ is always an integer satisfying the relation $N(m,-2-n) = \varepsilon_{m,n} N(m,n)$ where $\varepsilon_{m,n}=1$ unless $m \equiv 2(\mod 4)$ and $n$ is odd, in which case $\varepsilon_{m,n}=-1$. Furthermore, Propp's method was applicable to higher-dimensional cases.This paper discusses similar investigations of the numbers $M(m,n)$, of monomer-dimer coverings, or equivalently (not necessarily perfect) matchings of an $m$ by $n$ rectangular grid. We show that for each fixed $m$ there is a unique way of extending $M(m,n)$ to $n<0$ so that the resulting bi-infinite sequence, $M(m,n)$ for $n \in \mathbb{Z}$, satisfies a linear recurrence relation with constant coefficients.We show that $M(m,n)$, a priori a rational number, is always an integer, […]
This paper provides a definition of a cellular line in a cellular array that is independent of the notion of a line in $\mathfrak{R}^2$.It also presents a way of determining whether or not a cell set is a cellular line.Brief statements about existence, uniqueness, and properties of cellular lines are included.
ECO is a method for the enumeration of classes of combinatorial objects based on recursive constructions of such classes. In the first part of this paper we present a construction for the class of convex polyominoes based on the ECO method. Then we translate this construction into a succession rule. The final goal of the paper is to determine the generating function of convex polyominoes according to the semi-perimeter, and it is achieved by applying an idea introduced in [11].
In this paper we study the identity of the Abelian Sandpile Model on a rectangular lattice.This configuration can be computed with the burning algorithm, which, starting from the empty lattice, computes a sequence of configurations, the last of which is the identity.We extend this algorithm to an infinite lattice, which allows us to prove that the first steps of the algorithm on a finite lattice are the same whatever its size.Finally we introduce a new configuration, which shares the intriguing properties of the identity, but is easier to study.
We present a lattice gas technique for simulating molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic polymers in aqueous environments. Water molecules, hydrocarbons tail-groups and amphiphilic head-groups are explicitly represented on a three dimensional discrete lattice. Molecules move on the lattice proportional to their continuous momentum. Collision rules preserve momentum and kinetic energy. Potential energy from molecular interactions are also included explicitly. Non-trivial thermodynamics of large scale and long time dynamics are studied. In this paper we specifically demonstrate how, from a random initial distribution, micelles are formed, and grow until they destabilize and divide. Eventually a steady state of growing and dividing micelles is formed.
It is increasingly common to encounter time-varying random fields on networks (metabolic networks, sensor arrays, distributed computing, etc.).This paper considers the problem of optimal, nonlinear prediction of these fields, showing from an information-theoretic perspective that it is formally identical to the problem of finding minimal local sufficient statistics.I derive general properties of these statistics, show that they can be composed into global predictors, and explore their recursive estimation properties.For the special case of discrete-valued fields, I describe a convergent algorithm to identify the local predictors from empirical data, with minimal prior information about the field, and no distributional assumptions.
This paper studies a conservative transformation defined on families of finite sets. It consists in removing one element from each set and adding a new set composed of the removed elements. This transformation is conservative in the sense that the union of all sets of the family always remains the same.We study the dynamical process obtained when iterating this deterministic transformation on a family of sets and we focus on the evolution of the cardinalities of the sets of the family. This point of view allows to consider the transformation as an application defined on the set of all partitions of a fixed integer (which is the total number of elements in the sets).We show that iterating this particular transformation always leads to a heterogeneous distribution of the cardinalities, where almost all integers within an interval are represented.We also tackle some issues concerning the structure of the transition graph which sums up the whole dynamics of this process for all partitions of a fixed integer.
The Langton's ant is studied from the point of view of topological dynamical systems. A new approach which associate a subshift to the system is proposed.The transition rule is generalized to the family of bi-regular graphs $\Gamma(k,d)$ and the dependence of the dynamical system on $k$ and $d$ is analyzed. A classification of the $\Gamma (k,d)$ graphs based on the dynamical properties of the subshift is established. Also a hierarchy is defined on the graphs through the subset relation of the respective subshifts. The analysis are worked out by establishing an algebraic characterization of the forbidden words of the subshift.
A polycube in dimension $d$ is a finite union of unit $d$-cubes whose vertices are on knots of the lattice $\mathbb{Z}^d$. We show that, for each family of polycubes $E$, there exists a finite set $F$ of bricks (parallelepiped rectangles) such that the bricks which can be tiled by $E$ are exactly the bricks which can be tiled by $F$. Consequently, if we know the set $F$, then we have an algorithm to decide in polynomial time if a brick is tilable or not by the tiles of $E$.
A class of finite discrete dynamical systems, called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs), was introduced in [BR99] as a formal model for analyzing simulation systems. Here, we address the complexity of two basic problems and their generalizations for SDSs.Given an SDS $\mathcal{S}$ and a configuration $\mathcal{C}$, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration $\mathcal{C}'$ such that $\mathcal{S}$ has a transition from $\mathcal{C}'$ to $\mathcal{C}$. Our results provide separations between efficiently solvable and computationally intractable instances of the PRE problem. For example, we show that the PRE problem can be solved efficiently for SDSs with Boolean state values when the node functions are symmetric and the underlying graph is of bounded tree width. In contrast, we show that allowing just one non-symmetric node function renders the problem $\mathbf{NP}$-complete even when the underlying graph is a star (which has a tree width of 1). Our results extend some of the earlier results by Sutner [Su95] and Green [Gr87] on the complexity of the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE problem for 1-dimensional cellular automata.Given two configurations $\mathcal{C}$ and $\mathcal{C}'$ of a partial SDS $\mathcal{S}$, the PERMUTATION EXISTENCE (or PME) problem is to determine whether there is a permutation of nodes such that $\mathcal{S}$ has a transition from $\mathcal{C}'$ to $\mathcal{C}$ in one step. We show that the PME problem is […]
We present the first experimental demonstration of intermittency in a granular medium. The medium consists of magnets embedded within spheres. These spheres are placed in a horizontal Petri dish where they roll by virtue of an alternating, homogenous magnetic field. Due to collisions with the wall, clustering leads to self-organization into ring pieces circulating along the wall. The intermi ttent behaviour consists of an aperiodical alternation of this circular motion with a gaslike state extended over the entire dish. Molecular dynamic simulations agree with observations