A connected graph $G$ with at least $2m + 2n + 2$ vertices which contains a perfect matching is $E(m, n)$-{\it extendable}, if for any two sets of disjoint independent edges $M$ and $N$ with $|M| = m$ and $|N|= n$, there is a perfect matching $F$ in $G$ such that $M\subseteq F$ and $N\cap F=\emptyset$. Similarly, a connected graph with at least $n+2k+2$ vertices is called $(n,k)$-{\it extendable} if for any vertex set $S$ of size $n$ and any matching $M$ of size $k$ of $G-S$, $G-S-V(M)$ contains a perfect matching. Let $\varepsilon$ be a small positive constant, $b(G)$ and $t(G)$ be the binding number and toughness of a graph $G$. The two main theorems of this paper are: for every graph $G$ with sufficiently large order, 1) if $b(G)\geq 4/3+\varepsilon$, then $G$ is $E(m,n)$-extendable and also $(n,k)$-extendable; 2) if $t(G)\geq 1+\varepsilon$ and $G$ has a high connectivity, then $G$ is $E(m,n)$-extendable and also $(n,k)$-extendable. It is worth to point out that the binding number […]

Section:
Graph Theory

Identifying and locating-dominating codes have been widely studied in circulant graphs of type $C_n(1,2, \ldots, r)$, which can also be viewed as power graphs of cycles. Recently, Ghebleh and Niepel (2013) considered identification and location-domination in the circulant graphs $C_n(1,3)$. They showed that the smallest cardinality of a locating-dominating code in $C_n(1,3)$ is at least $\lceil n/3 \rceil$ and at most $\lceil n/3 \rceil + 1$ for all $n \geq 9$. Moreover, they proved that the lower bound is strict when $n \equiv 0, 1, 4 \pmod{6}$ and conjectured that the lower bound can be increased by one for other $n$. In this paper, we prove their conjecture. Similarly, they showed that the smallest cardinality of an identifying code in $C_n(1,3)$ is at least $\lceil 4n/11 \rceil$ and at most $\lceil 4n/11 \rceil + 1$ for all $n \geq 11$. Furthermore, they proved that the lower bound is attained for most of the lengths $n$ and conjectured that in the rest of the cases the lower bound […]

Section:
Graph Theory

We propose the conjecture that every tree with order $n$ at least $2$ and total domination number $\gamma_t$ has at most $\left(\frac{n-\frac{\gamma_t}{2}}{\frac{\gamma_t}{2}}\right)^{\frac{\gamma_t}{2}}$ minimum total dominating sets. As a relaxation of this conjecture, we show that every forest $F$ with order $n$, no isolated vertex, and total domination number $\gamma_t$ has at most $\min\left\{\left(8\sqrt{e}\, \right)^{\gamma_t}\left(\frac{n-\frac{\gamma_t}{2}}{\frac{\gamma_t}{2}}\right)^{\frac{\gamma_t}{2}}, (1+\sqrt{2})^{n-\gamma_t},1.4865^n\right\}$ minimum total dominating sets.

Section:
Graph Theory

We consider decision problems for relations over finite and infinite words defined by finite automata. We prove that the equivalence problem for binary deterministic rational relations over infinite words is undecidable in contrast to the case of finite words, where the problem is decidable. Furthermore, we show that it is decidable in doubly exponential time for an automatic relation over infinite words whether it is a recognizable relation. We also revisit this problem in the context of finite words and improve the complexity of the decision procedure to single exponential time. The procedure is based on a polynomial time regularity test for deterministic visibly pushdown automata, which is a result of independent interest.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

In algebraic terms, the insertion of $n$-powers in words may be modelled at the language level by considering the pseudovariety of ordered monoids defined by the inequality $1\le x^n$. We compare this pseudovariety with several other natural pseudovarieties of ordered monoids and of monoids associated with the Burnside pseudovariety of groups defined by the identity $x^n=1$. In particular, we are interested in determining the pseudovariety of monoids that it generates, which can be viewed as the problem of determining the Boolean closure of the class of regular languages closed under $n$-power insertions. We exhibit a simple upper bound and show that it satisfies all pseudoidentities which are provable from $1\le x^n$ in which both sides are regular elements with respect to the upper bound.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

We say that a finite set of red and blue points in the plane in general position can be $K_{1,3}$-covered if the set can be partitioned into subsets of size $4$, with $3$ points of one color and $1$ point of the other color, in such a way that, if at each subset the fourth point is connected by straight-line segments to the same-colored points, then the resulting set of all segments has no crossings. We consider the following problem: Given a set $R$ of $r$ red points and a set $B$ of $b$ blue points in the plane in general position, how many points of $R\cup B$ can be $K_{1,3}$-covered? and we prove the following results: (1) If $r=3g+h$ and $b=3h+g$, for some non-negative integers $g$ and $h$, then there are point sets $R\cup B$, like $\{1,3\}$-equitable sets (i.e., $r=3b$ or $b=3r$) and linearly separable sets, that can be $K_{1,3}$-covered. (2) If $r=3g+h$, $b=3h+g$ and the points in $R\cup B$ are in convex position, then at least $r+b-4$ points can be $K_{1,3}$-covered, and […]

Section:
Combinatorics

The packing chromatic number $\chi_{\rho}(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the smallest integer $c$ such that the vertex set $V(G)$ can be partitioned into sets $X_1, . . . , X_c$, with the condition that vertices in $X_i$ have pairwise distance greater than $i$. In this paper, we consider the packing chromatic number of several families of Sierpinski-type graphs. We establish the packing chromatic numbers of generalized Sierpinski graphs $S^n_G$ where $G$ is a path or a cycle (with exception of a cycle of length five) as well as a connected graph of order four. Furthermore, we prove that the packing chromatic number in the family of Sierpinski-triangle graphs $ST_4^n$ is bounded from above by 20.

Section:
Graph Theory

The packing chromatic number $\chi_{\rho}(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the smallest integer $k$ such that the vertex set of $G$ can be partitioned into sets $V_i$, $i\in [k]$, where vertices in $V_i$ are pairwise at distance at least $i+1$. Packing chromatic vertex-critical graphs, $\chi_{\rho}$-critical for short, are introduced as the graphs $G$ for which $\chi_{\rho}(G-x) < \chi_{\rho}(G)$ holds for every vertex $x$ of $G$. If $\chi_{\rho}(G) = k$, then $G$ is $k$-$\chi_{\rho}$-critical. It is shown that if $G$ is $\chi_{\rho}$-critical, then the set $\{\chi_{\rho}(G) - \chi_{\rho}(G-x):\ x\in V(G)\}$ can be almost arbitrary. The $3$-$\chi_{\rho}$-critical graphs are characterized, and $4$-$\chi_{\rho}$-critical graphs are characterized in the case when they contain a cycle of length at least $5$ which is not congruent to $0$ modulo $4$. It is shown that for every integer $k\ge 2$ there exists a $k$-$\chi_{\rho}$-critical tree and that a $k$-$\chi_{\rho}$-critical caterpillar exists if […]

Section:
Graph Theory

Let $n_g(k)$ denote the smallest order of a $k$-chromatic graph of girth at least $g$. We consider the problem of determining $n_g(k)$ for small values of $k$ and $g$. After giving an overview of what is known about $n_g(k)$, we provide some new lower bounds based on exhaustive searches, and then obtain several new upper bounds using computer algorithms for the construction of witnesses, and for the verification of their correctness. We also present the first examples of reasonably small order for $k = 4$ and $g > 5$. In particular, the new bounds include: $n_4(7) \leq 77$, $26 \leq n_6(4) \leq 66$, $30 \leq n_7(4) \leq 171$.

Section:
Graph Theory

Slimness of a graph measures the local deviation of its metric from a tree metric. In a graph $G=(V,E)$, a geodesic triangle $\bigtriangleup(x,y,z)$ with $x, y, z\in V$ is the union $P(x,y) \cup P(x,z) \cup P(y,z)$ of three shortest paths connecting these vertices. A geodesic triangle $\bigtriangleup(x,y,z)$ is called $\delta$-slim if for any vertex $u\in V$ on any side $P(x,y)$ the distance from $u$ to $P(x,z) \cup P(y,z)$ is at most $\delta$, i.e. each path is contained in the union of the $\delta$-neighborhoods of two others. A graph $G$ is called $\delta$-slim, if all geodesic triangles in $G$ are $\delta$-slim. The smallest value $\delta$ for which $G$ is $\delta$-slim is called the slimness of $G$. In this paper, using the layering partition technique, we obtain sharp bounds on slimness of such families of graphs as (1) graphs with cluster-diameter $\Delta(G)$ of a layering partition of $G$, (2) graphs with tree-length $\lambda$, (3) graphs with tree-breadth $\rho$, […]

Section:
Graph Theory

Given a proper edge coloring $\varphi$ of a graph $G$, we define the palette $S_{G}(v,\varphi)$ of a vertex $v \in V(G)$ as the set of all colors appearing on edges incident with $v$. The palette index $\check s(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum number of distinct palettes occurring in a proper edge coloring of $G$. In this paper we give various upper and lower bounds on the palette index of $G$ in terms of the vertex degrees of $G$, particularly for the case when $G$ is a bipartite graph with small vertex degrees. Some of our results concern $(a,b)$-biregular graphs; that is, bipartite graphs where all vertices in one part have degree $a$ and all vertices in the other part have degree $b$. We conjecture that if $G$ is $(a,b)$-biregular, then $\check{s}(G)\leq 1+\max\{a,b\}$, and we prove that this conjecture holds for several families of $(a,b)$-biregular graphs. Additionally, we characterize the graphs whose palette index equals the number of vertices.

Section:
Graph Theory

In this paper we study three domination-like problems, namely identifying codes, locating-dominating codes, and locating-total-dominating codes. We are interested in finding the minimum cardinality of such codes in circular and infinite grid graphs of given height. We provide an alternate proof for already known results, as well as new results. These were obtained by a computer search based on a generic framework, that we developed earlier, for the search of a minimum labeling satisfying a pseudo-d-local property in rotagraphs.

Section:
Graph Theory

A new recursive function on discrete interval exchange transformation associated to a composition of length $r$, and the permutation $\sigma(i) = r -i +1$ is defined. Acting on composition $c$, this recursive function counts the number of orbits of the discrete interval exchange transformation associated to the composition $c$. Moreover, minimal discrete interval exchanges transformation i.e. the ones having only one orbit, are reduced to the composition which label the root of the Raney tree. Therefore, we describe a generalization of the Raney tree using our recursive function.

Section:
Combinatorics