Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |

The bivariate chromatic polynomial $\chi_G(x,y)$ of a graph $G = (V, E)$, introduced by Dohmen-Pönitz-Tittmann (2003), counts all $x$-colorings of $G$ such that adjacent vertices get different colors if they are $\le y$. We extend this notion to mixed graphs, which have both directed and undirected edges. Our main result is a decomposition formula which expresses $\chi_G(x,y)$ as a sum of bivariate order polynomials (Beck-Farahmand-Karunaratne-Zuniga Ruiz 2020), and a combinatorial reciprocity theorem for $\chi_G(x,y)$.

Section:
Combinatorics

The analysis of strings of $n$ random variables with geometric distribution has recently attracted renewed interest: Archibald et al. consider the number of distinct adjacent pairs in geometrically distributed words. They obtain the asymptotic ($n\rightarrow\infty$) mean of this number in the cases of different and identical pairs. In this paper we are interested in all asymptotic moments in the identical case, in the asymptotic variance in the different case and in the asymptotic distribution in both cases. We use two approaches: the first one, the probabilistic approach, leads to variances in both cases and to some conjectures on all moments in the identical case and on the distribution in both cases. The second approach, the combinatorial one, relies on multivariate pattern matching techniques, yielding exact formulas for first and second moments. We use such tools as Mellin transforms, Analytic Combinatorics, Markov Chains.

Section:
Combinatorics

Given a rooted, binary phylogenetic network and a rooted, binary phylogenetic tree, can the tree be embedded into the network? This problem, called \textsc{Tree Containment}, arises when validating networks constructed by phylogenetic inference methods.We present the first algorithm for (rooted) \textsc{Tree Containment} using the treewidth $t$ of the input network $N$ as parameter, showing that the problem can be solved in $2^{O(t^2)}\cdot|N|$ time and space.

Section:
Discrete Algorithms

In this paper, we study the problem of gossiping with interference constraint in radio ring networks. Gossiping (or total exchange information) is a protocol where each node in the network has a message and is expected to distribute its own message to every other node in the network. The gossiping problem consists in finding the minimum running time (makespan) of a gossiping protocol and algorithms that attain this makespan. We focus on the case where the transmission network is a ring network. We consider synchronous protocols where it takes one unit of time (step) to transmit a unit-length message. During one step, a node receives at most one message only through one of its two neighbors. We also suppose that, during one step, a node cannot be both a sender and a receiver (half duplex model). Moreover communication is subject to interference constraints. We use a primary node interference model where, if a node receives a message from one of its neighbors, its other neighbor cannot send at the same time. With these assumptions we completely solve the problem for ring networks. We first show lower bounds and then give gossiping algorithms which meet these lower bounds and so are optimal. The number of rounds depends on the congruences of n modulo 12.

Section:
Discrete Algorithms

We generalize the familiar notion of periodicity in sequences to a new kind of pseudoperiodicity, and we prove some basic results about it. We revisit the results of a 2012 paper of Shevelev and reprove his results in a simpler and more unified manner, and provide a complete answer to one of his previously unresolved questions. We consider finding words with specific pseudoperiod and having the smallest possible critical exponent. Finally, we consider the problem of determining whether a finite word is pseudoperiodic of a given size, and show that it is NP-complete.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

Consider the following hat guessing game. A bear sits on each vertex of a graph $G$, and a demon puts on each bear a hat colored by one of $h$ colors. Each bear sees only the hat colors of his neighbors. Based on this information only, each bear has to guess $g$ colors and he guesses correctly if his hat color is included in his guesses. The bears win if at least one bear guesses correctly for any hat arrangement. We introduce a new parameter - fractional hat chromatic number $\hat{\mu}$, arising from the hat guessing game. The parameter $\hat{\mu}$ is related to the hat chromatic number which has been studied before. We present a surprising connection between the hat guessing game and the independence polynomial of graphs. This connection allows us to compute the fractional hat chromatic number of chordal graphs in polynomial time, to bound fractional hat chromatic number by a function of maximum degree of $G$, and to compute the exact value of $\hat{\mu}$ of cliques, paths, and cycles.

Section:
Graph Theory

We say that a language $L$ is \emph{constantly growing} if there is a constant $c$ such that for every word $u\in L$ there is a word $v\in L$ with $\vert u\vert<\vert v\vert\leq c+\vert u\vert$. We say that a language $L$ is \emph{geometrically growing} if there is a constant $c$ such that for every word $u\in L$ there is a word $v\in L$ with $\vert u\vert<\vert v\vert\leq c\vert u\vert$. Given two infinite languages $L_1,L_2$, we say that $L_1$ \emph{dissects} $L_2$ if $\vert L_2\setminus L_1\vert=\infty$ and $\vert L_1\cap L_2\vert=\infty$. In 2013, it was shown that for every constantly growing language $L$ there is a regular language $R$ such that $R$ dissects $L$. In the current article we show how to dissect a geometrically growing language by a homomorphic image of intersection of two context-free languages. Consider three alphabets $\Gamma$, $\Sigma$, and $\Theta$ such that $\vert \Sigma\vert=1$ and $\vert \Theta\vert=4$. We prove that there are context-free languages $M_1,M_2\subseteq \Theta^*$, an erasing alphabetical homomorphism $\pi:\Theta^*\rightarrow \Sigma^*$, and a nonerasing alphabetical homomorphism $\varphi : \Gamma^*\rightarrow \Sigma^*$ such that: If $L\subseteq \Gamma^*$ is a geometrically growing language then there is a regular language $R\subseteq \Theta^*$ such that $\varphi^{-1}\left(\pi\left(R\cap M_1\cap M_2\right)\right)$ dissects the language $L$.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

Regular synchronization languages can be used to define rational relations of finite words, and to characterize subclasses of rational relations, like automatic or recognizable relations. We provide a systematic study of the decidability of uniformization and definability problems for subclasses of rational relations defined in terms of such synchronization languages. We rephrase known results in this setting and complete the picture by adding several new decidability and undecidability results.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics

Holonomic equations are recursive equations which allow computing efficiently numbers of combinatoric objects. Rémy showed that the holonomic equation associated with binary trees yields an efficient linear random generator of binary trees. I extend this paradigm to Motzkin trees and Schröder trees and show that despite slight differences my algorithm that generates random Schröder trees has linear expected complexity and my algorithm that generates Motzkin trees is in O(n) expected complexity, only if we can implement a specific oracle with a O(1) complexity. For Motzkin trees, I propose a solution which works well for realistic values (up to size ten millions) and yields an efficient algorithm.

The (bitwise) complement $\overline{x}$ of a binary word $x$ is obtained by changing each $0$ in $x$ to $1$ and vice versa. An $\textit{antisquare}$ is a nonempty word of the form $x\, \overline{x}$. In this paper, we study infinite binary words that do not contain arbitrarily large antisquares. For example, we show that the repetition threshold for the language of infinite binary words containing exactly two distinct antisquares is $(5+\sqrt{5})/2$. We also study repetition thresholds for related classes, where "two" in the previous sentence is replaced by a larger number. We say a binary word is $\textit{good}$ if the only antisquares it contains are $01$ and $10$. We characterize the minimal antisquares, that is, those words that are antisquares but all proper factors are good. We determine the growth rate of the number of good words of length $n$ and determine the repetition threshold between polynomial and exponential growth for the number of good words.

Section:
Combinatorics

In the Maker-Breaker domination game played on a graph $G$, Dominator's goal is to select a dominating set and Staller's goal is to claim a closed neighborhood of some vertex. We study the cases when Staller can win the game. If Dominator (resp., Staller) starts the game, then $\gamma_{\rm SMB}(G)$ (resp., $\gamma_{\rm SMB}'(G)$) denotes the minimum number of moves Staller needs to win. For every positive integer $k$, trees $T$ with $\gamma_{\rm SMB}'(T)=k$ are characterized and a general upper bound on $\gamma_{\rm SMB}'$ is proved. Let $S = S(n_1,\dots, n_\ell)$ be the subdivided star obtained from the star with $\ell$ edges by subdividing its edges $n_1-1, \ldots, n_\ell-1$ times, respectively. Then $\gamma_{\rm SMB}'(S)$ is determined in all the cases except when $\ell\ge 4$ and each $n_i$ is even. The simplest formula is obtained when there are at least two odd $n_i$s. If $n_1$ and $n_2$ are the two smallest such numbers, then $\gamma_{\rm SMB}'(S(n_1,\dots, n_\ell))=\lceil \log_2(n_1+n_2+1)\rceil$. For caterpillars, exact formulas for $\gamma_{\rm SMB}$ and for $\gamma_{\rm SMB}'$ are established.

Section:
Graph Theory

Homomorphically full graphs are those for which every homomorphic image is isomorphic to a subgraph. We extend the definition of homomorphically full to oriented graphs in two different ways. For the first of these, we show that homomorphically full oriented graphs arise as quasi-transitive orientations of homomorphically full graphs. This in turn yields an efficient recognition and construction algorithms for these homomorphically full oriented graphs. For the second one, we show that the related recognition problem is GI-hard, and that the problem of deciding if a graph admits a homomorphically full orientation is NP-complete. In doing so we show the problem of deciding if two given oriented cliques are isomorphic is GI-complete.

Section:
Graph Theory

Mixed graphs have both directed and undirected edges. A mixed cage is a regular mixed graph of given girth with minimum possible order. In this paper mixed cages are studied. Upper bounds are obtained by general construction methods and computer searches.

Section:
Graph Theory

For the given bipartite graphs $G_1,G_2,\ldots,G_t$, the multicolor bipartite Ramsey number $BR(G_1,G_2,\ldots,G_t)$ is the smallest positive integer $b$ such that any $t$-edge-coloring of $K_{b,b}$ contains a monochromatic subgraph isomorphic to $G_i$, colored with the $i$th color for some $1\leq i\leq t$. We compute the exact values of the bipartite Ramsey numbers $BR(C_8,C_{2n})$ for $n\geq2$.

Section:
Graph Theory

Symmetric edge polytopes are lattice polytopes associated with finite simple graphs that are of interest in both theory and applications. We investigate the facet structure of symmetric edge polytopes for various models of random graphs. For an Erdős-Renyi random graph, we identify a threshold probability at which with high probability the symmetric edge polytope shares many facet-supporting hyperplanes with that of a complete graph. We also investigate the relationship between the average local clustering, also known as the Watts-Strogatz clustering coefficient, and the number of facets for graphs with either a fixed number of edges or a fixed degree sequence. We use well-known Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling methods to generate empirical evidence that for a fixed degree sequence, higher average local clustering in a connected graph corresponds to higher facet numbers in the associated symmetric edge polytope.

Section:
Combinatorics

The exponential recursive trees model several kinds of networks. At each step of growing of these trees, each node independently attracts a new node with probability p, or fails to do with probability 1 − p. Here, we investigate the number of protected nodes, total path length of protected nodes, and a mean study of the protected node profile of such trees.

Section:
Combinatorics

Let c be an integer. A c-partite tournament is an orientation of a complete c-partite graph. A c-partite tournament is rich if it is strong, and each partite set has at least two vertices. In 1996, Guo and Volkmann characterized the structure of all rich c-partite tournaments without (c + 1)-cycles, which solved a problem by Bondy. They also put forward a problem that what the structure of rich c-partite tournaments without (c + k)-cycles for some k>1 is. In this paper, we answer the question of Guo and Volkmann for k = 2.

Section:
Graph Theory

We study the enumeration of inversion sequences that avoid the pattern 021 and another pattern of length four. We determine the generating trees for all possible pattern pairs and compute the corresponding generating functions. We introduce the concept of dregular generating trees and conjecture that for any 021-avoiding pattern τ , the generating tree T ({021, τ }) is d-regular for some integer d.

Section:
Combinatorics

We establish exact values for the $2$-limited broadcast domination number of various grid graphs, in particular $C_m\square C_n$ for $3 \leq m \leq 6$ and all $n\geq m$, $P_m \square C_3$ for all $m \geq 3$, and $P_m \square C_n$ for $4\leq m \leq 5$ and all $n \geq m$. We also produce periodically optimal values for $P_m \square C_4$ and $P_m \square C_6$ for $m \geq 3$, $P_4 \square P_n$ for $n \geq 4$, and $P_5 \square P_n$ for $n \geq 5$. Our method completes an exhaustive case analysis and eliminates cases by combining tools from linear programming with various mathematical proof techniques.

Section:
Graph Theory

We study the Maker-Breaker domination game played by Dominator and Staller on the vertex set of a given graph. Dominator wins when the vertices he has claimed form a dominating set of the graph. Staller wins if she makes it impossible for Dominator to win, or equivalently, she is able to claim some vertex and all its neighbours. Maker-Breaker domination number $\gamma_{MB}(G)$ ($\gamma '_{MB}(G)$) of a graph $G$ is defined to be the minimum number of moves for Dominator to guarantee his winning when he plays first (second). We investigate these two invariants for the Cartesian product of any two graphs. We obtain upper bounds for the Maker-Breaker domination number of the Cartesian product of two arbitrary graphs. Also, we give upper bounds for the Maker-Breaker domination number of the Cartesian product of the complete graph with two vertices and an arbitrary graph. Most importantly, we prove that $\gamma'_{MB}(P_2\square P_n)=n$ for $n\geq 1$, $\gamma_{MB}(P_2\square P_n)$ equals $n$, $n-1$, $n-2$, for $1\leq n\leq 4$, $5\leq n\leq 12$, and $n\geq 13$, respectively. For the disjoint union of $P_2\square P_n$s, we show that $\gamma_{MB}'(\dot\cup_{i=1}^k(P_2\square P_n)_i)=k\cdot n$ ($n\geq 1$), and that $\gamma_{MB}(\dot\cup_{i=1}^k(P_2\square P_n)_i)$ equals $k\cdot n$, $k\cdot n-1$, $k\cdot n-2$ for $1\leq n\leq 4$, $5\leq n\leq 12$, and $n\geq 13$, respectively.

Section:
Graph Theory

We explore new connections between complete non-ambiguous trees (CNATs) and permutations. We give a bijection between tree-like tableaux and a specific subset of CNATs. This map is used to establish and solve a recurrence relation for the number of tree-like tableaux of a fixed size without occupied corners, proving a conjecture by Laborde-Zubieta. We end by establishing a row/column swapping operation on CNATs and identify new areas for future research.

Section:
Combinatorics

The Grundy number of a graph is the maximum number of colours used by the "First-Fit" greedy colouring algorithm over all vertex orderings. Given a vertex ordering $\sigma= v_1,\dots,v_n$, the "First-Fit" greedy colouring algorithm colours the vertices in the order of $\sigma$ by assigning to each vertex the smallest colour unused in its neighbourhood. By restricting this procedure to vertex orderings that are connected, we obtain {\em connected greedy colourings}. For some graphs, all connected greedy colourings use exactly $\chi(G)$ colours; they are called {\em good graphs}. On the opposite, some graphs do not admit any connected greedy colouring using only $\chi(G)$ colours; they are called {\em ugly graphs}. We show that no perfect graph is ugly. We also give simple proofs of this fact for subclasses of perfect graphs (block graphs, comparability graphs), and show that no $K_4$-minor free graph is ugly. Moreover, our proofs are constructive, and imply the existence of polynomial-time algorithms to compute good connected orderings for these graph classes.

Section:
Graph Theory

In this corrigendum, we give a counterexample to Theorem 5.2 in "On the monophonic rank of a graph" [Discrete Math. Theor. Comput. Sci. 24:2 (2022) #3]. We also present a polynomial-time algorithm for computing the monophonic rank of a starlike graph.

Section:
Graph Theory

To simplify the analysis of Boolean networks, a reduction in the number of components is often considered. A popular reduction method consists in eliminating components that are not autoregulated, using variable substitution. In this work, we show how this method can be extended, for asynchronous dynamics of Boolean networks, to the elimination of vertices that have a negative autoregulation, and study the effects on the dynamics and interaction structure. For elimination of non-autoregulated variables, the preservation of attractors is in general guaranteed only for fixed points. Here we give sufficient conditions for the preservation of complex attractors. The removal of so called mediator nodes (i.e. vertices with indegree and outdegree one) is often considered, and frequently does not affect the attractor landscape. We clarify that this is not always the case, and in some situations even subtle changes in the interaction structure can lead to a different asymptotic behaviour. Finally, we use properties of the more general elimination method introduced here to give an alternative proof for a bound on the number of attractors of asynchronous Boolean networks in terms of the cardinality of positive feedback vertex sets of the interaction graph.

Section:
Automata, Logic and Semantics