Special issues

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Editor: Jens Gustedt


Enumeration of Dumont permutations avoiding certain four-letter patterns

Alexander Burstein ; Opel Jones.
In this paper, we enumerate Dumont permutations of the fourth kind avoiding or containing certain permutations of length 4. We also conjecture a Wilf-equivalence of two 4-letter patterns on Dumont permutations of the first kind.

Fillings of skew shapes avoiding diagonal patterns

Vít Jelínek ; Mark Karpilovskij.
A skew shape is the difference of two top-left justified Ferrers shapes sharing the same top-left corner. We study integer fillings of skew shapes. As our first main result, we show that for a specific hereditary class of skew shapes, which we call D-free shapes, the fillings that avoid a north-east chain of size $k$ are in bijection with fillings that avoid a south-east chain of the same size. Since Ferrers shapes are a subclass of D-free shapes, this result can be seen as a generalization of previous analogous results for Ferrers shapes. As our second main result, we construct a bijection between 01-fillings of an arbitrary skew shape that avoid a south-east chain of size 2, and the 01-fillings of the same shape that simultaneously avoid a north-east chain of size 2 and a particular non-square subfilling. This generalizes a previous result for transversal fillings.

Flip-sort and combinatorial aspects of pop-stack sorting

Andrei Asinowski ; Cyril Banderier ; Benjamin Hackl.
Flip-sort is a natural sorting procedure which raises fascinating combinatorial questions. It finds its roots in the seminal work of Knuth on stack-based sorting algorithms and leads to many links with permutation patterns. We present several structural, enumerative, and algorithmic results on permutations that need few (resp. many) iterations of this procedure to be sorted. In particular, we give the shape of the permutations after one iteration, and characterize several families of permutations related to the best and worst cases of flip-sort. En passant, we also give some links between pop-stack sorting, automata, and lattice paths, and introduce several tactics of bijective proofs which have their own interest.

Catalan words avoiding pairs of length three patterns

Jean-Luc Baril ; Carine Khalil ; Vincent Vajnovszki.
Catalan words are particular growth-restricted words counted by the eponymous integer sequence. In this article we consider Catalan words avoiding a pair of patterns of length 3, pursuing the recent initiating work of the first and last authors and of S. Kirgizov where (among other things) the enumeration of Catalan words avoiding a patterns of length 3 is completed. More precisely, we explore systematically the structural properties of the sets of words under consideration and give enumerating results by means of recursive decomposition, constructive bijections or bivariate generating functions with respect to the length and descent number. Some of the obtained enumerating sequences are known, and thus the corresponding results establish new combinatorial interpretations for them.

Enumeration of Permutation Classes and Weighted Labelled Independent Sets

Christian Bean ; Émile Nadeau ; Henning Ulfarsson.
In this paper, we study the staircase encoding of permutations, which maps a permutation to a staircase grid with cells filled with permutations. We consider many cases, where restricted to a permutation class, the staircase encoding becomes a bijection to its image. We describe the image of those restrictions using independent sets of graphs weighted with permutations. We derive the generating function for the independent sets and then for their weighted counterparts. The bijections we establish provide the enumeration of permutation classes. We use our results to uncover some unbalanced Wilf-equivalences of permutation classes and outline how to do random sampling in the permutation classes. In particular, we cover the classes $\mathrm{Av}(2314,3124)$, $\mathrm{Av}(2413,3142)$, $\mathrm{Av}(2413,3124)$, $\mathrm{Av}(2413,2134)$ and $\mathrm{Av}(2314,2143)$, as well as many subclasses.

Bounded affine permutations I. Pattern avoidance and enumeration

Neal Madras ; Justin M. Troyka.
We introduce a new boundedness condition for affine permutations, motivated by the fruitful concept of periodic boundary conditions in statistical physics. We study pattern avoidance in bounded affine permutations. In particular, we show that if $\tau$ is one of the finite increasing oscillations, then every $\tau$-avoiding affine permutation satisfies the boundedness condition. We also explore the enumeration of pattern-avoiding affine permutations that can be decomposed into blocks, using analytic methods to relate their exact and asymptotic enumeration to that of the underlying ordinary permutations. Finally, we perform exact and asymptotic enumeration of the set of all bounded affine permutations of size $n$. A companion paper will focus on avoidance of monotone decreasing patterns in bounded affine permutations.

Unary profile of lambda terms with restricted De Bruijn indices

Katarzyna Grygiel ; Isabella Larcher.
In this paper we present an average-case analysis of closed lambda terms with restricted values of De Bruijn indices in the model where each occurrence of a variable contributes one to the size. Given a fixed integer k, a lambda term in which all De Bruijn indices are bounded by k has the following shape: It starts with k De Bruijn levels, forming the so-called hat of the term, to which some number of k-colored Motzkin trees are attached. By means of analytic combinatorics, we show that the size of this hat is constant on average and that the average number of De Bruijn levels of k-colored Motzkin trees of size n is asymptotically Θ(√ n). Combining these two facts, we conclude that the maximal non-empty De Bruijn level in a lambda term with restrictions on De Bruijn indices and of size n is, on average, also of order √ n. On this basis, we provide the average unary profile of such lambda terms.

Quantitative and Algorithmic aspects of Barrier Synchronization in Concurrency

OLivier Bodini ; Matthieu Dien ; Antoine Genitrini ; Frédéric Peschanski.
In this paper we address the problem of understanding Concurrency Theory from a combinatorial point of view. We are interested in quantitative results and algorithmic tools to refine our understanding of the classical combinatorial explosion phenomenon arising in concurrency. This paper is essentially focusing on the the notion of synchronization from the point of view of combinatorics. As a first step, we address the quantitative problem of counting the number of executions of simple processes interacting with synchronization barriers. We elaborate a systematic decomposition of processes that produces a symbolic integral formula to solve the problem. Based on this procedure, we develop a generic algorithm to generate process executions uniformly at random. For some interesting sub-classes of processes we propose very efficient counting and random sampling algorithms. All these algorithms have one important characteristic in common: they work on the control graph of processes and thus do not require the explicit construction of the state-space.