Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |

The section covers research in all aspects of the design and analysis of discrete algorithms. This extends also to data structures, combinatorial structures, and lower bounds.

Topics includes: Algorithmic aspects of networks - Algorithmic game theory - Approximation algorithms - Combinatorial optimization - Computational biology - Distributed algorithms - Computational geometry - Data compression - Data structures - Databases and information retrieval - Graph algorithms - Hierarchical memories - Mobile computing - On-line algorithms - Parallel algorithms - Parametrized complexity - Pattern matching - Randomized algorithms - Scheduling - Streaming algorithms

Editors: Anne Driemel ; Klaus Jansen ; Christian Komusiewicz ; Kitty Meeks ; M. S. Ramanujan ; Ignasi Sau ; Hadas Shachnai ; Zsolt Tuza ; Rob van Stee

The input to the token swapping problem is a graph with vertices $v_1, v_2, \ldots, v_n$, and $n$ tokens with labels $1, 2, \ldots, n$, one on each vertex. The goal is to get token $i$ to vertex $v_i$ for all $i= 1, \ldots, n$ using a minimum number of swaps, where a swap exchanges the tokens on the endpoints of an edge. We present some results about token swapping on a tree, also known as "sorting with a transposition tree": 1. An optimum swap sequence may need to perform a swap on a leaf vertex that has the correct token (a "happy leaf"), disproving a conjecture of Vaughan. 2. Any algorithm that fixes happy leaves -- as all known approximation algorithms for the problem do -- has approximation factor at least $4/3$. Furthermore, the two best-known 2-approximation algorithms have approximation factor exactly 2. 3. A generalized problem -- weighted coloured token swapping -- is NP-complete on trees, even when they are restricted to be subdivided stars, but solvable in polynomial time on paths and stars. In this version, tokens and vertices have colours, and colours have weights. The goal is to get every token to a vertex of the same colour, and the cost of a swap is the sum of the weights of the two tokens involved.

Given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$ with a nonnegative edge length function and an integer $p$, $0 < p < |V|$, the $p$-centdian problem is to find $p$ vertices (called the {\it centdian set}) of $V$ such that the {\it eccentricity} plus {\it median-distance} is minimized, in which the {\it eccentricity} is the maximum (length) distance of all vertices to their nearest {\it centdian set} and the {\it median-distance} is the total (length) distance of all vertices to their nearest {\it centdian set}. The {\it eccentricity} plus {\it median-distance} is called the {\it centdian-distance}. The purpose of the $p$-centdian problem is to find $p$ open facilities (servers) which satisfy the quality-of-service of the minimum total distance ({\it median-distance}) and the maximum distance ({\it eccentricity}) to their service customers, simultaneously. If we converse the two criteria, that is given the bound of the {\it centdian-distance} and the objective function is to minimize the cardinality of the {\it centdian set}, this problem is called the converse centdian problem. In this paper, we prove the $p$-centdian problem is NP-Complete. Then we design the first non-trivial brute force exact algorithms for the $p$-centdian problem and the converse centdian problem, respectively. Finally, we design two approximation algorithms for both problems.

Given a partially order set (poset) $P$, and a pair of families of ideals $\mathcal{I}$ and filters $\mathcal{F}$ in $P$ such that each pair $(I,F)\in \mathcal{I}\times\mathcal{F}$ has a non-empty intersection, the dualization problem over $P$ is to check whether there is an ideal $X$ in $P$ which intersects every member of $\mathcal{F}$ and does not contain any member of $\mathcal{I}$. Equivalently, the problem is to check for a distributive lattice $L=L(P)$, given by the poset $P$ of its set of joint-irreducibles, and two given antichains $\mathcal{A},\mathcal{B}\subseteq L$ such that no $a\in\mathcal{A}$ is dominated by any $b\in\mathcal{B}$, whether $\mathcal{A}$ and $\mathcal{B}$ cover (by domination) the entire lattice. We show that the problem can be solved in quasi-polynomial time in the sizes of $P$, $\mathcal{A}$ and $\mathcal{B}$, thus answering an open question in Babin and Kuznetsov (2017). As an application, we show that minimal infrequent closed sets of attributes in a rational database, with respect to a given implication base of maximum premise size of one, can be enumerated in incremental quasi-polynomial time.

In Defective Coloring we are given a graph $G$ and two integers $\chi_d$, $\Delta^*$ and are asked if we can $\chi_d$-color $G$ so that the maximum degree induced by any color class is at most $\Delta^*$. We show that this natural generalization of Coloring is much harder on several basic graph classes. In particular, we show that it is NP-hard on split graphs, even when one of the two parameters $\chi_d$, $\Delta^*$ is set to the smallest possible fixed value that does not trivialize the problem ($\chi_d = 2$ or $\Delta^* = 1$). Together with a simple treewidth-based DP algorithm this completely determines the complexity of the problem also on chordal graphs. We then consider the case of cographs and show that, somewhat surprisingly, Defective Coloring turns out to be one of the few natural problems which are NP-hard on this class. We complement this negative result by showing that Defective Coloring is in P for cographs if either $\chi_d$ or $\Delta^*$ is fixed; that it is in P for trivially perfect graphs; and that it admits a sub-exponential time algorithm for cographs when both $\chi_d$ and $\Delta^*$ are unbounded.

In the $d$-dimensional hypercube bin packing problem, a given list of $d$-dimensional hypercubes must be packed into the smallest number of hypercube bins. Epstein and van Stee [SIAM J. Comput. 35 (2005)] showed that the asymptotic performance ratio $\rho$ of the online bounded space variant is $\Omega(\log d)$ and $O(d/\log d)$, and conjectured that it is $\Theta(\log d)$. We show that $\rho$ is in fact $\Theta(d/\log d)$, using probabilistic arguments.

The Hausdorff distance is a relatively new measure of similarity of graphs. The notion of the Hausdorff distance considers a special kind of a common subgraph of the compared graphs and depends on the structural properties outside of the common subgraph. There was no known efficient algorithm for the problem of determining the Hausdorff distance between two trees, and in this paper we present a polynomial-time algorithm for it. The algorithm is recursive and it utilizes the divide and conquer technique. As a subtask it also uses the procedure that is based on the well known graph algorithm of finding the maximum bipartite matching.

A dominating set $D$ of a graph $G$ without isolated vertices is called semipaired dominating set if $D$ can be partitioned into $2$-element subsets such that the vertices in each set are at distance at most $2$. The semipaired domination number, denoted by $\gamma_{pr2}(G)$ is the minimum cardinality of a semipaired dominating set of $G$. Given a graph $G$ with no isolated vertices, the \textsc{Minimum Semipaired Domination} problem is to find a semipaired dominating set of $G$ of cardinality $\gamma_{pr2}(G)$. The decision version of the \textsc{Minimum Semipaired Domination} problem is already known to be NP-complete for chordal graphs, an important graph class. In this paper, we show that the decision version of the \textsc{Minimum Semipaired Domination} problem remains NP-complete for split graphs, a subclass of chordal graphs. On the positive side, we propose a linear-time algorithm to compute a minimum cardinality semipaired dominating set of block graphs. In addition, we prove that the \textsc{Minimum Semipaired Domination} problem is APX-complete for graphs with maximum degree $3$.

A mixed dominating set is a collection of vertices and edges that dominates all vertices and edges of a graph. We study the complexity of exact and parameterized algorithms for \textsc{Mixed Dominating Set}, resolving some open questions. In particular, we settle the problem's complexity parameterized by treewidth and pathwidth by giving an algorithm running in time $O^*(5^{tw})$ (improving the current best $O^*(6^{tw})$), as well as a lower bound showing that our algorithm cannot be improved under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH), even if parameterized by pathwidth (improving a lower bound of $O^*((2 - \varepsilon)^{pw})$). Furthermore, by using a simple but so far overlooked observation on the structure of minimal solutions, we obtain branching algorithms which improve both the best known FPT algorithm for this problem, from $O^*(4.172^k)$ to $O^*(3.510^k)$, and the best known exponential-time exact algorithm, from $O^*(2^n)$ and exponential space, to $O^*(1.912^n)$ and polynomial space.

We consider the convex hull $P_{\varphi}(G)$ of all satisfying assignments of a given MSO formula $\varphi$ on a given graph $G$. We show that there exists an extended formulation of the polytope $P_{\varphi}(G)$ that can be described by $f(|\varphi|,\tau)\cdot n$ inequalities, where $n$ is the number of vertices in $G$, $\tau$ is the treewidth of $G$ and $f$ is a computable function depending only on $\varphi$ and $\tau.$ In other words, we prove that the extension complexity of $P_{\varphi}(G)$ is linear in the size of the graph $G$, with a constant depending on the treewidth of $G$ and the formula $\varphi$. This provides a very general yet very simple meta-theorem about the extension complexity of polytopes related to a wide class of problems and graphs. As a corollary of our main result, we obtain an analogous result % for the weaker MSO$_1$ logic on the wider class of graphs of bounded cliquewidth. Furthermore, we study our main geometric tool which we term the glued product of polytopes. While the glued product of polytopes has been known since the '90s, we are the first to show that it preserves decomposability and boundedness of treewidth of the constraint matrix. This implies that our extension of $P_\varphi(G)$ is decomposable and has a constraint matrix of bounded treewidth; so far only few classes of polytopes are known to be decomposable. These properties make our extension useful in the construction of algorithms.

In the (binary) Distinct Vectors problem we are given a binary matrix A with pairwise different rows and want to select at most k columns such that, restricting the matrix to these columns, all rows are still pairwise different. A result by Froese et al. [JCSS] implies a 2^2^(O(k)) * poly(|A|)-time brute-force algorithm for Distinct Vectors. We show that this running time bound is essentially optimal by showing that there is a constant c such that the existence of an algorithm solving Distinct Vectors with running time 2^(O(2^(ck))) * poly(|A|) would contradict the Exponential Time Hypothesis.

Finding a solution to a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is known to be an NP-hard task. This has motivatedthe multitude of works that have been devoted to developing techniques that simplify CSP instances before or duringtheir resolution.The present work proposes rigidly enforced schemes for simplifying binary CSPs that allow the narrowing of valuedomains, either via value merging or via value suppression. The proposed schemes can be viewed as parametrizedgeneralizations of two widely studied CSP simplification techniques, namely, value merging and neighbourhoodsubstitutability. Besides, we show that both schemes may be strengthened in order to allow variable elimination,which may result in more significant simplifications. This work contributes also to the theory of tractable CSPs byidentifying a new tractable class of binary CSP.

In this paper, we study the complexity of the selection of a graph discretization order with a stepwise linear cost function. Finding such vertex ordering has been proved to be an essential step to solve discretizable distance geometry problems (DDGPs). DDGPs constitute a class of graph realization problems where the vertices can be ordered in such a way that the search space of possible positions becomes discrete, usually represented by a binary tree. In particular, it is useful to find discretization orders that minimize an indicator of the size of the search tree. Our stepwise linear cost function generalizes this situation and allows to discriminate the vertices into three categories depending on the number of adjacent predecessors of each vertex in the order and on two parameters K and U. We provide a complete study of NP-completeness for fixed values of K and U. Our main result is that the problem is NP-complete in general for all values of K and U such that U ≥ K + 1 and U ≥ 2. A consequence of this result is that the minimization of vertices with exactly K adjacent predecessors in a discretization order is also NP-complete.

Many researchers have studied symmetry properties of various Boolean functions. A class of Boolean functions, called nested canalyzing functions (NCFs), has been used to model certain biological phenomena. We identify some interesting relationships between NCFs, symmetric Boolean functions and a generalization of symmetric Boolean functions, which we call $r$-symmetric functions (where $r$ is the symmetry level). Using a normalized representation for NCFs, we develop a characterization of when two variables of an NCF are symmetric. Using this characterization, we show that the symmetry level of an NCF $f$ can be easily computed given a standard representation of $f$. We also present an algorithm for testing whether a given $r$-symmetric function is an NCF. Further, we show that for any NCF $f$ with $n$ variables, the notion of strong asymmetry considered in the literature is equivalent to the property that $f$ is $n$-symmetric. We use this result to derive a closed form expression for the number of $n$-variable Boolean functions that are NCFs and strongly asymmetric. We also identify all the Boolean functions that are NCFs and symmetric.

Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a positive integer $t\geq2$, the task in the vertex cover $P_t$ ($VCP_t$) problem is to find a minimum subset of vertices $F\subseteq V$ such that every path of order $t$ in $G$ contains at least one vertex from $F$. The $VCP_t$ problem is NP-complete for any integer $t\geq2$ and has many applications in real world. Recently, the authors presented a dynamic programming algorithm running in time $4^p\cdot n^{O(1)}$ for the $VCP_3$ problem on $n$-vertex graphs with treewidth $p$. In this paper, we propose an improvement of it and improved the time-complexity to $3^p\cdot n^{O(1)}$. The connected vertex cover $P_3$ ($CVCP_3$) problem is the connected variation of the $VCP_3$ problem where $G[F]$ is required to be connected. Using the Cut\&Count technique, we give a randomized algorithm with runtime $4^p\cdot n^{O(1)}$ for the $CVCP_3$ problem on $n$-vertex graphs with treewidth $p$.

We consider the constrained graph alignment problem which has applications in biological network analysis. Given two input graphs $G_1=(V_1,E_1), G_2=(V_2,E_2)$, a pair of vertex mappings induces an {\it edge conservation} if the vertex pairs are adjacent in their respective graphs. %In general terms The goal is to provide a one-to-one mapping between the vertices of the input graphs in order to maximize edge conservation. However the allowed mappings are restricted since each vertex from $V_1$ (resp. $V_2$) is allowed to be mapped to at most $m_1$ (resp. $m_2$) specified vertices in $V_2$ (resp. $V_1$). Most of results in this paper deal with the case $m_2=1$ which attracted most attention in the related literature. We formulate the problem as a maximum independent set problem in a related {\em conflict graph} and investigate structural properties of this graph in terms of forbidden subgraphs. We are interested, in particular, in excluding certain wheals, fans, cliques or claws (all terms are defined in the paper), which corresponds in excluding certain cycles, paths, cliques or independent sets in the neighborhood of each vertex. Then, we investigate algorithmic consequences of some of these properties, which illustrates the potential of this approach and raises new horizons for further works. In particular this approach allows us to reinterpret a known polynomial case in terms of conflict graph and to improve known approximation and fixed-parameter tractability results […]

A positional numeration system is given by a base and by a set of digits. The base is a real or complex number $\beta$ such that $|\beta|>1$, and the digit set $A$ is a finite set of digits including $0$. Thus a number can be seen as a finite or infinite string of digits. An on-line algorithm processes the input piece-by-piece in a serial fashion. On-line arithmetic, introduced by Trivedi and Ercegovac, is a mode of computation where operands and results flow through arithmetic units in a digit serial manner, starting with the most significant digit. In this paper, we first formulate a generalized version of the on-line algorithms for multiplication and division of Trivedi and Ercegovac for the cases that $\beta$ is any real or complex number, and digits are real or complex. We then define the so-called OL Property, and show that if $(\beta, A)$ has the OL Property, then on-line multiplication and division are feasible by the Trivedi-Ercegovac algorithms. For a real base $\beta$ and a digit set $A$ of contiguous integers, the system $(\beta, A)$ has the OL Property if $\# A > |\beta|$. For a complex base $\beta$ and symmetric digit set $A$ of contiguous integers, the system $(\beta, A)$ has the OL Property if $\# A > \beta\overline{\beta} + |\beta + \overline{\beta}|$. Provided that addition and subtraction are realizable in parallel in the system $(\beta, A)$ and that preprocessing of the denominator is possible, our on-line algorithms for multiplication and division have […]

In this paper we address the problem of generating all elements obtained by the saturation of an initial set by some operations. More precisely, we prove that we can generate the closure of a boolean relation (a set of boolean vectors) by polymorphisms with a polynomial delay. Therefore we can compute with polynomial delay the closure of a family of sets by any set of "set operations": union, intersection, symmetric difference, subsets, supersets $\dots$). To do so, we study the $Membership_{\mathcal{F}}$ problem: for a set of operations $\mathcal{F}$, decide whether an element belongs to the closure by $\mathcal{F}$ of a family of elements. In the boolean case, we prove that $Membership_{\mathcal{F}}$ is in P for any set of boolean operations $\mathcal{F}$. When the input vectors are over a domain larger than two elements, we prove that the generic enumeration method fails, since $Membership_{\mathcal{F}}$ is NP-hard for some $\mathcal{F}$. We also study the problem of generating minimal or maximal elements of closures and prove that some of them are related to well known enumeration problems such as the enumeration of the circuits of a matroid or the enumeration of maximal independent sets of a hypergraph. This article improves on previous works of the same authors.

In the Planar 3-SAT problem, we are given a 3-SAT formula together with its incidence graph, which is planar, and are asked whether this formula is satisfiable. Since Lichtenstein's proof that this problem is NP-complete, it has been used as a starting point for a large number of reductions. In the course of this research, different restrictions on the incidence graph of the formula have been devised, for which the problem also remains hard. In this paper, we investigate the restriction in which we require that the incidence graph can be augmented by the edges of a Hamiltonian cycle that first passes through all variables and then through all clauses, in a way that the resulting graph is still planar. We show that the problem of deciding satisfiability of a 3-SAT formula remains NP-complete even if the incidence graph is restricted in that way and the Hamiltonian cycle is given. This complements previous results demanding cycles only through either the variables or clauses. The problem remains hard for monotone formulas, as well as for instances with exactly three distinct variables per clause. In the course of this investigation, we show that monotone instances of Planar 3-SAT with exactly three distinct variables per clause are always satisfiable, thus settling the question by Darmann, Döcker, and Dorn on the complexity of this problem variant in a surprising way.

A geographic network is a graph whose vertices are restricted to lie in a prescribed region in the plane. In this paper we begin to study the following fundamental problem for geographic networks: can a given geographic network be drawn without crossings? We focus on the seemingly simple setting where each region is a vertical segment, and one wants to connect pairs of segments with a path that lies inside the convex hull of the two segments. We prove that when paths must be drawn as straight line segments, it is NP-complete to determine if a crossing-free solution exists, even if all vertical segments have unit length. In contrast, we show that when paths must be monotone curves, the question can be answered in polynomial time. In the more general case of paths that can have any shape, we show that the problem is polynomial under certain assumptions.

We present a polynomial time algorithm, which solves a nonstandard Variation of the well-known PARTITION-problem: Given positive integers $n, k$ and $t$ such that $t \geq n$ and $k \cdot t = {n+1 \choose 2}$, the algorithm partitions the elements of the set $I_n = \{1, \ldots, n\}$ into $k$ mutually disjoint subsets $T_j$ such that $\cup_{j=1}^k T_j = I_n$ and $\sum_{x \in T_{j}} x = t$ for each $j \in \{1,2, \ldots, k\}$. The algorithm needs $\mathcal{O}(n \cdot ( \frac{n}{2k} + \log \frac{n(n+1)}{2k} ))$ steps to insert the $n$ elements of $I_n$ into the $k$ sets $T_j$.

We study a recently introduced generalization of the Vertex Cover (VC) problem, called Power Vertex Cover (PVC). In this problem, each edge of the input graph is supplied with a positive integer demand. A solution is an assignment of (power) values to the vertices, so that for each edge one of its endpoints has value as high as the demand, and the total sum of power values assigned is minimized. We investigate how this generalization affects the parameterized complexity of Vertex Cover. On the positive side, when parameterized by the value of the optimal P, we give an O*(1.274^P)-time branching algorithm (O* is used to hide factors polynomial in the input size), and also an O*(1.325^P)-time algorithm for the more general asymmetric case of the problem, where the demand of each edge may differ for its two endpoints. When the parameter is the number of vertices k that receive positive value, we give O*(1.619^k) and O*(k^k)-time algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric cases respectively, as well as a simple quadratic kernel for the asymmetric case. We also show that PVC becomes significantly harder than classical VC when parameterized by the graph's treewidth t. More specifically, we prove that unless the ETH is false, there is no n^o(t)-time algorithm for PVC. We give a method to overcome this hardness by designing an FPT approximation scheme which gives a (1+epsilon)-approximation to the optimal solution in time FPT in parameters t and 1/epsilon.

A total dominating set of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a subset $D \subseteq V$ such that every vertex in $V$ is adjacent to some vertex in $D$. Finding a total dominating set of minimum size is NP-hard on planar graphs and W[2]-complete on general graphs when parameterized by the solution size. By the meta-theorem of Bodlaender et al. [J. ACM, 2016], there exists a linear kernel for Total Dominating Set on graphs of bounded genus. Nevertheless, it is not clear how such a kernel can be effectively constructed, and how to obtain explicit reduction rules with reasonably small constants. Following the approach of Alber et al. [J. ACM, 2004], we provide an explicit kernel for Total Dominating Set on planar graphs with at most $410k$ vertices, where $k$ is the size of the solution. This result complements several known constructive linear kernels on planar graphs for other domination problems such as Dominating Set, Edge Dominating Set, Efficient Dominating Set, Connected Dominating Set, or Red-Blue Dominating Set.

We study the following problem: Given $k$ paths that share the same vertex set, is there a simultaneous geometric embedding of these paths such that each individual drawing is monotone in some direction? We prove that for any dimension $d\geq 2$, there is a set of $d + 1$ paths that does not admit a monotone simultaneous geometric embedding.

A graph $G$ is signed if each edge is assigned $+$ or $-$. A signed graph is balanced if there is a bipartition of its vertex set such that an edge has sign $-$ if and only if its endpoints are in different parts. The Edwards-Erdös bound states that every graph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges has a balanced subgraph with at least $\frac{m}{2}+\frac{n-1}{4}$ edges. In the Signed Max Cut Above Tight Lower Bound (Signed Max Cut ATLB) problem, given a signed graph $G$ and a parameter $k$, the question is whether $G$ has a balanced subgraph with at least $\frac{m}{2}+\frac{n-1}{4}+\frac{k}{4}$ edges. This problem generalizes Max Cut Above Tight Lower Bound, for which a kernel with $O(k^5)$ vertices was given by Crowston et al. [ICALP 2012, Algorithmica 2015]. Crowston et al. [TCS 2013] improved this result by providing a kernel with $O(k^3)$ vertices for the more general Signed Max Cut ATLB problem. In this article we are interested in improving the size of the kernels for Signed Max Cut ATLB on restricted graph classes for which the problem remains hard. For two integers $r,\ell \geq 0$, a graph $G$ is an $(r,\ell)$-graph if $V(G)$ can be partitioned into $r$ independent sets and $\ell$ cliques. Building on the techniques of Crowston et al. [TCS 2013], we provide a kernel with $O(k^2)$ vertices on $(r,\ell)$-graphs for any fixed $r,\ell \geq 0$, and a simple linear kernel on subclasses of split graphs for which we prove that the problem is still NP-hard.

This paper deals with two-sided matching market with two disjoint sets, i.e. the set of buyers and the set of sellers. Each seller can trade with at most with one buyer and vice versa. Money is transferred from sellers to buyers for an indivisible goods that buyers own. Valuation functions, for participants of both sides, are represented by strictly increasing functions with money considered as discrete variable. An algorithm is devised to prove the existence of stability for this model.

We investigate a family of algorithms minimizing energetic effort in random networks computing aggregative functions. In contrast to previously considered models, our results minimize maximal energetic effort over all stations instead of the average usage of energy. Such approach seems to be much more suitable for some kinds of networks, in particular ad hoc radio networks, wherein we need all stations functioning and replacing batteries after the deployment is not feasible. We analyze also the latency of proposed energy-optimal algorithms. We model a network by placing randomly and independently $n$ points in a $d$-dimensional cube of side-length $n^{1/d}$. We place an edge between vertices that interact with each other. We analyze properties of the resulting graphs in order to obtain estimates on energetic effort and latency of proposed algorithms.

Network models allow one to deal with massive data sets using some standard concepts from graph theory. Understanding and investigating the structural properties of a certain data set is a crucial task in many practical applications of network optimization. Recently, labeled network optimization over colored graphs has been extensively studied. Given a (not necessarily properly) edge-colored graph $G=(V,E)$, a subgraph $H$ is said to bemonochromaticif all its edges have the same color, and calledmulticoloredif all its edges have distinct colors. The monochromatic clique and multicolored cycle partition problems have important applications in the problems of network optimization arising in information science and operations research. We investigate the computational complexity of the problems of determining the minimum number of monochromatic cliques or multicolored cycles that, respectively, partition $V(G)$. We show that the minimum monochromatic clique partition problem is APX-hard on monochromatic-diamond-free graphs, and APX-complete on monochromatic-diamond-free graphs in which the size of a maximum monochromatic clique is bounded by a constant. We also show that the minimum multicolored cycle partition problem is NP-complete, even if the input graph $G$ is triangle-free. Moreover, for the weighted version of the minimum monochromatic clique partition problem on monochromatic-diamond-free graphs, we derive an approximation algorithm with (tight) […]

We consider therank reduction problemfor matroids: Given a matroid $M$ and an integer $k$, find a minimum size subset of elements of $M$ whose removal reduces the rank of $M$ by at least $k$. When $M$ is a graphical matroid this problem is the minimum $k$-cut problem, which admits a 2-approximation algorithm. In this paper we show that the rank reduction problem for transversal matroids is essentially at least as hard to approximate as the densest $k$-subgraph problem. We also prove that, while the problem is easily solvable in polynomial time for partition matroids, it is NP-hard when considering the intersection of two partition matroids. Our proof shows, in particular, that the maximum vertex cover problem is NP-hard on bipartite graphs, which answers an open problem of B. Simeone.

Parameterized algorithms are often used to efficiently solve NP-hard problems on graphs. In this context, vertex cover is used as a powerful parameter for dealing with graph problems which are hard to solve even when parameterized by tree-width; however, the drawback of vertex cover is that bounding it severely restricts admissible graph classes. We introduce a generalization of vertex cover called twin-cover and show that FPT algorithms exist for a wide range of difficult problems when parameterized by twin-cover. The advantage of twin-cover over vertex cover is that it imposes a lesser restriction on the graph structure and attains low values even on dense graphs. Apart from introducing the parameter itself, this article provides a number of new FPT algorithms parameterized by twin-cover with a special emphasis on solving problems which are not in FPT even when parameterized by tree-width. It also shows that MS1 model checking can be done in elementary FPT time parameterized by twin-cover and discusses the field of kernelization.

A method is described for constructing, with computer assistance, planar substitution tilings that have n-fold rotational symmetry. This method uses as prototiles the set of rhombs with angles that are integer multiples of pi/n, and includes various special cases that have already been constructed by hand for low values of n. An example constructed by this method for n = 11 is exhibited; this is the first substitution tiling with elevenfold symmetry appearing in the literature.

In this paper we devise some output sensitive algorithms for a problem where a set of points and a positive integer, m, are given and the goal is to cover a maximal number of these points with m disks. We introduce a parameter, ρ, as the maximum number of points that one disk can cover and we analyse the algorithms based on this parameter. At first, we solve the problem for m=1 in O(nρ) time, which improves the previous O(n2) time algorithm for this problem. Then we solve the problem for m=2 in O(nρ + 3 log ρ) time, which improves the previous O(n3 log n) algorithm for this problem. Our algorithms outperform the previous algorithms because ρ is much smaller than n in many cases. Finally, we extend the algorithm for any value of m and solve the problem in O(mnρ + (mρ)2m - 1 log mρ) time. The previous algorithm for this problem runs in O(n2m - 1 log n) time and our algorithm usually runs faster than the previous algorithm because mρ is smaller than n in many cases. We obtain output sensitive algorithms by confining the areas that we should search for the result. The techniques used in this paper may be applicable in other covering problems to obtain faster algorithms.

In this paper we discuss how to assess the performance of algorithms for optimisation problems in a way that balances solution quality and time. We propose measures of cost-effectiveness for such algorithms. These measures give the gain in solution quality per time unit over a sequence of inputs, and give a basis for deciding which algorithm to use when aiming for best accumulated solution quality for a given time investment over such an input sequence. Cost-effectiveness measures can be defined for both average-case and worst-case performance. We apply these ideas to three problems: maximum matching, graph colouring and Kolmogorov complexity. For the latter, we propose a cost-effectiveness measure for the time-bounded complexity Kτ(x), and argue that it can be used to measure the cost-effectiveness both of finding a short program to output x and of generating x from such a program. Under mild assumptions, we show that (roughly speaking) if the time-bounded complexity Kτ(x) is to be a cost-effective approximation to K(x) then τ(n)=O(n2).

We present a randomized algorithm to compute a clique of maximum size in the visibility graph G of the vertices of a simple polygon P. The input of the problem consists of the visibility graph G, a Hamiltonian cycle describing the boundary of P, and a parameter δ∈(0,1) controlling the probability of error of the algorithm. The algorithm does not require the coordinates of the vertices of P. With probability at least 1-δ the algorithm runs in O( |E(G)|2 / ω(G) log(1/δ)) time and returns a maximum clique, where ω(G) is the number of vertices in a maximum clique in G. A deterministic variant of the algorithm takes O(|E(G)|2) time and always outputs a maximum size clique. This compares well to the best previous algorithm by Ghosh et al. (2007) for the problem, which is deterministic and runs in O(|V(G)|2 |E(G)|) time.

By the algorithm implemented in the paper by Akiyama-Lee [Adv. Math. 226(4):2855 13;2883, 2011] and some of its predecessors, we have examined the pure discreteness of the spectrum for all irreducible Pisot substitutions of trace less than or equal to 2, and some cases of planar tilings generated by boundary substitutions due to Kenyon [Geom. Func. Anal. 6:471 13;488, 1996].

The generalized list T-coloring is a common generalization of many graph coloring models, including classical coloring, L(p,q)-labeling, channel assignment and T-coloring. Every vertex from the input graph has a list of permitted labels. Moreover, every edge has a set of forbidden differences. We ask for a labeling of vertices of the input graph with natural numbers, in which every vertex gets a label from its list of permitted labels and the difference of labels of the endpoints of each edge does not belong to the set of forbidden differences of this edge. In this paper we present an exact algorithm solving this problem, running in time O*((τ+2)n), where τ is the maximum forbidden difference over all edges of the input graph and n is the number of its vertices. Moreover, we show how to improve this bound if the input graph has some special structure, e.g. a bounded maximum degree, no big induced stars or a perfect matching.

The problem of finding a spanning tree in an undirected graph with a maximum number of leaves is known to be NP-hard. We present an algorithm which finds a spanning tree with at least k leaves in time O*(3.4575k) which improves the currently best algorithm. The estimation of the running time is done by using a non-standard measure. The present paper is one of the still few examples that employ the Measure & Conquer paradigm of algorithm analysis in the area of Parameterized Algorithmics.

We study the relationship between correlated equilibria and Nash equilibria. In contrast to previous work focusing on the possible benefits of a benevolent mediator, we define and bound the Price of Mediation (PoM): the ratio of the social cost (or utility) of the worst correlated equilibrium to the social cost (or utility) of the worst Nash. We observe that in practice, the heuristics used for mediation are frequently non-optimal, and from an economic perspective mediators may be inept or self-interested. Recent results on computation of equilibria also motivate our work. We consider the Price of Mediation for general games with small numbers of players and pure strategies. For two player, two strategy games we give tight bounds in the non-negative cost model and the non-negative utility model. For larger games (either more players, or more pure strategies per player, or both) we show that the PoM can be arbitrary. We also have many results on symmetric congestion games (also known as load balancing games). We show that for general convex cost functions, the PoM can grow exponentially in the number of players. We prove that the PoM is one for linear costs and at most a small constant (but can be larger than one) for concave costs. For polynomial cost functions, we prove bounds on the PoM which are exponential in the degree.

A graph containment problem is to decide whether one graph called the host graph can be modified into some other graph called the target graph by using a number of specified graph operations. We consider edge deletions, edge contractions, vertex deletions and vertex dissolutions as possible graph operations permitted. By allowing any combination of these four operations we capture the following problems: testing on (induced) minors, (induced) topological minors, (induced) subgraphs, (induced) spanning subgraphs, dissolutions and contractions. We show that these problems stay NP-complete even when the host and target belong to the class of line graphs, which form a subclass of the class of claw-free graphs, i.e., graphs with no induced 4-vertex star. A natural question is to study the computational complexity of these problems if the target graph is assumed to be fixed. We show that these problems may become computationally easier when the host graphs are restricted to be claw-free. In particular we consider the problems that are to test whether a given host graph contains a fixed target graph as a contraction.

In this paper we consider the problem of deciding whether a given r-uniform hypergraph H with minimum vertex degree at least c\binom|V(H)|-1r-1, or minimum degree of a pair of vertices at least c\binom|V(H)|-2r-2, has a vertex 2-coloring. Motivated by an old result of Edwards for graphs, we obtain first optimal dichotomy results for 2-colorings of r-uniform hypergraphs. For each problem, for every r≥q 3 we determine a threshold value depending on r such that the problem is NP-complete for c below the threshold, while for c strictly above the threshold it is polynomial. We provide an algorithm constructing the coloring with time complexity O(n^\lfloor 4/ε\rfloor+2\log n) with some ε>0. This algorithm becomes more efficient in the case of r=3,4,5 due to known Turán numbers of the triangle and the Fano plane. In addition, we determine the computational complexity of strong k-coloring of 3-uniform hypergraphs H with minimum vertex degree at least c\binom|V(H)|-12, for some c, leaving a gap for k≥q 5 which vanishes as k→ ∞.

We consider two repeat finding problems relative to sets of strings: (a) Find the largest substrings that occur in every string of a given set; (b) Find the maximal repeats in a given string that occur in no string of a given set. Our solutions are based on the suffix array construction, requiring O(m) memory, where m is the length of the longest input string, and O(n &log;m) time, where n is the the whole input size (the sum of the length of each string in the input). The most expensive part of our algorithms is the computation of several suffix arrays. We give an implementation and experimental results that evidence the efficiency of our algorithms in practice, even for very large inputs.

We give a linear-time algorithm that checks for isomorphism between two 0-1 matrices that obey the circular-ones property. Our algorithm is similar to the isomorphism algorithm for interval graphs of Lueker and Booth, but works on PC trees, which are unrooted and have a cyclic nature, rather than with PQ trees, which are rooted. This algorithm leads to linear-time isomorphism algorithms for related graph classes, including Helly circular-arc graphs, Γ circular-arc graphs, proper circular-arc graphs and convex-round graphs.

A predicate P: {-1, 1}k →{0, 1} can be associated with a constraint satisfaction problem Max CSP(P). P is called ''approximation resistant'' if Max CSP(P) cannot be approximated better than the approximation obtained by choosing a random assignment, and ''approximable'' otherwise. This classification of predicates has proved to be an important and challenging open problem. Motivated by a recent result of Austrin and Mossel (Computational Complexity, 2009), we consider a natural subclass of predicates defined by signs of quadratic polynomials, including the special case of predicates defined by signs of linear forms, and supply algorithms to approximate them as follows. In the quadratic case we prove that every symmetric predicate is approximable. We introduce a new rounding algorithm for the standard semidefinite programming relaxation of Max CSP(P) for any predicate P: {-1, 1}k →{0, 1} and analyze its approximation ratio. Our rounding scheme operates by first manipulating the optimal SDP solution so that all the vectors are nearly perpendicular and then applying a form of hyperplane rounding to obtain an integral solution. The advantage of this method is that we are able to analyze the behaviour of a set of k rounded variables together as opposed to just a pair of rounded variables in most previous methods. In the linear case we prove that a predicate called ''Monarchy'' is approximable. This predicate is not amenable to our algorithm for the quadratic case, nor to other […]

By an Euler walk in a 3-uniform hypergraph H we mean an alternating sequence v(0), epsilon(1), v(1), epsilon(2), v(2), ... , v(m-1), epsilon(m), v(m) of vertices and edges in H such that each edge of H appears in this sequence exactly once and v(i-1); v(i) is an element of epsilon(i), v(i-1) not equal v(i), for every i = 1, 2, ... , m. This concept is a natural extension of the graph theoretic notion of an Euler walk to the case of 3-uniform hypergraphs. We say that a 3-uniform hypergraph H is strongly connected if it has no isolated vertices and for each two edges e and f in H there is a sequence of edges starting with e and ending with f such that each two consecutive edges in this sequence have two vertices in common. In this paper we give an algorithm that constructs an Euler walk in a strongly connected 3-uniform hypergraph (it is known that such a walk in such a hypergraph always exists). The algorithm runs in time O(m), where m is the number of edges in the input hypergraph.

We describe a new algorithm for the efficient generation of all non-isomorphic connected cubic graphs. Our implementation of this algorithm is more than 4 times faster than previous generators. The generation can also be efficiently restricted to cubic graphs with girth at least 4 or 5.