Graph Theory

This section of Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science seeks high quality articles on structural and algorithmic aspects of graphs and related discrete mathematical models. We particularly seek topics with an intersection between discrete mathematics and computer science. We handle submissions in all areas of finite graph theory.


Group twin coloring of graphs

Cichacz, Sylwia ; Przybyło, Jakub.
For a given graph $G$, the least integer $k\geq 2$ such that for every Abelian group $\mathcal{G}$ of order $k$ there exists a proper edge labeling $f:E(G)\rightarrow \mathcal{G}$ so that $\sum_{x\in N(u)}f(xu)\neq \sum_{x\in N(v)}f(xv)$ for each edge $uv\in E(G)$ is called the \textit{group twin chromatic index} of $G$ and denoted by $\chi'_g(G)$. This graph invariant is related to a few well-known problems in the field of neighbor distinguishing graph colorings. We conjecture that $\chi'_g(G)\leq \Delta(G)+3$ for all graphs without isolated edges, where $\Delta(G)$ is the maximum degree of $G$, and provide an infinite family of connected graph (trees) for which the equality holds. We prove that this conjecture is valid for all trees, and then apply this result as the base case for proving a general upper bound for all graphs $G$ without isolated edges: $\chi'_g(G)\leq 2(\Delta(G)+{\rm col}(G))-5$, where ${\rm col}(G)$ denotes the coloring number of $G$. This improves the best […]

A Sufficient Condition for Graphic Sequences with Given Largest and Smallest Entries, Length, and Sum

Cloteaux, Brian.
We give a sufficient condition for a degree sequence to be graphic based on its largest and smallest elements, length, and sum. This bound generalizes a result of Zverovich and Zverovich.

On a Class of Graphs with Large Total Domination Number

Bahadır, Selim ; Gözüpek, Didem.
Let $\gamma(G)$ and $\gamma_t(G)$ denote the domination number and the total domination number, respectively, of a graph $G$ with no isolated vertices. It is well-known that $\gamma_t(G) \leq 2\gamma(G)$. We provide a characterization of a large family of graphs (including chordal graphs) satisfying $\gamma_t(G)= 2\gamma(G)$, strictly generalizing the results of Henning (2001) and Hou et al. (2010), and partially answering an open question of Henning (2009).

Computing Minimum Rainbow and Strong Rainbow Colorings of Block Graphs

Keranen, Melissa ; Lauri, Juho.
A path in an edge-colored graph $G$ is rainbow if no two edges of it are colored the same. The graph $G$ is rainbow-connected if there is a rainbow path between every pair of vertices. If there is a rainbow shortest path between every pair of vertices, the graph $G$ is strongly rainbow-connected. The minimum number of colors needed to make $G$ rainbow-connected is known as the rainbow connection number of $G$, and is denoted by $\text{rc}(G)$. Similarly, the minimum number of colors needed to make $G$ strongly rainbow-connected is known as the strong rainbow connection number of $G$, and is denoted by $\text{src}(G)$. We prove that for every $k \geq 3$, deciding whether $\text{src}(G) \leq k$ is NP-complete for split graphs, which form a subclass of chordal graphs. Furthermore, there exists no polynomial-time algorithm for approximating the strong rainbow connection number of an $n$-vertex split graph with a factor of $n^{1/2-\epsilon}$ for any $\epsilon > 0$ unless P = NP. We then […]

On neighbour sum-distinguishing $\{0,1\}$-edge-weightings of bipartite graphs

Lyngsie, Kasper Szabo.
Let $S$ be a set of integers. A graph G is said to have the S-property if there exists an S-edge-weighting $w : E(G) \rightarrow S$ such that any two adjacent vertices have different sums of incident edge-weights. In this paper we characterise all bridgeless bipartite graphs and all trees without the $\{0,1\}$-property. In particular this problem belongs to P for these graphs while it is NP-complete for all graphs.

Forbidden subgraphs for constant domination number

Furuya, Michitaka.
In this paper, we characterize the sets $\mathcal{H}$ of connected graphs such that there exists a constant $c=c(\mathcal{H})$ satisfying $\gamma (G)\leq c$ for every connected $\mathcal{H}$-free graph $G$, where $\gamma (G)$ is the domination number of $G$.

Proof of a local antimagic conjecture

Haslegrave, John.
An antimagic labelling of a graph $G$ is a bijection $f:E(G)\to\{1,\ldots,E(G)\}$ such that the sums $S_v=\sum_{e\ni v}f(e)$ distinguish all vertices. A well-known conjecture of Hartsfield and Ringel (1994) is that every connected graph other than $K_2$ admits an antimagic labelling. Recently, two sets of authors (Arumugam, Premalatha, Ba\v{c}a \& Semani\v{c}ov\'a-Fe\v{n}ov\v{c}\'ikov\'a (2017), and Bensmail, Senhaji \& Lyngsie (2017)) independently introduced the weaker notion of a local antimagic labelling, where only adjacent vertices must be distinguished. Both sets of authors conjectured that any connected graph other than $K_2$ admits a local antimagic labelling. We prove this latter conjecture using the probabilistic method. Thus the parameter of local antimagic chromatic number, introduced by Arumugam et al., is well-defined for every connected graph other than $K_2$ .

Weakly threshold graphs

Barrus, Michael D..
We define a weakly threshold sequence to be a degree sequence $d=(d_1,\dots,d_n)$ of a graph having the property that $\sum_{i \leq k} d_i \geq k(k-1)+\sum_{i > k} \min\{k,d_i\} - 1$ for all positive $k \leq \max\{i:d_i \geq i-1\}$. The weakly threshold graphs are the realizations of the weakly threshold sequences. The weakly threshold graphs properly include the threshold graphs and satisfy pleasing extensions of many properties of threshold graphs. We demonstrate a majorization property of weakly threshold sequences and an iterative construction algorithm for weakly threshold graphs, as well as a forbidden induced subgraph characterization. We conclude by exactly enumerating weakly threshold sequences and graphs.

Annular and pants thrackles

Misereh, Grace ; Nikolayevsky, Yuri.
A thrackle is a drawing of a graph in which each pair of edges meets precisely once. Conway's Thrackle Conjecture asserts that a thrackle drawing of a graph on the plane cannot have more edges than vertices. We prove the Conjecture for thrackle drawings all of whose vertices lie on the boundaries of $d \le 3$ connected domains in the complement of the drawing. We also give a detailed description of thrackle drawings corresponding to the cases when $d=2$ (annular thrackles) and $d=3$ (pants thrackles).

On interval number in cycle convexity

Araujo , Julio ; Ducoffe , Guillaume ; Nisse , Nicolas ; Suchan , Karol.
Recently, Araujo et al. [Manuscript in preparation, 2017] introduced the notion of Cycle Convexity of graphs. In their seminal work, they studied the graph convexity parameter called hull number for this new graph convexity they proposed, and they presented some of its applications in Knot theory. Roughly, the tunnel number of a knot embedded in a plane is upper bounded by the hull number of a corresponding planar 4-regular graph in cycle convexity. In this paper, we go further in the study of this new graph convexity and we study the interval number of a graph in cycle convexity. This parameter is, alongside the hull number, one of the most studied parameters in the literature about graph convexities. Precisely, given a graph G, its interval number in cycle convexity, denoted by $in_{cc} (G)$, is the minimum cardinality of a set S ⊆ V (G) such that every vertex w ∈ V (G) \ S has two distinct neighbors u, v ∈ S such that u and v lie in same connected component of G[S], i.e. the […]

Finding Hamilton cycles in random intersection graphs

Rybarczyk, Katarzyna.
The construction of the random intersection graph model is based on a random family of sets. Such structures, which are derived from intersections of sets, appear in a natural manner in many applications. In this article we study the problem of finding a Hamilton cycle in a random intersection graph. To this end we analyse a classical algorithm for finding Hamilton cycles in random graphs (algorithm HAM) and study its efficiency on graphs from a family of random intersection graphs (denoted here by G(n,m,p)). We prove that the threshold function for the property of HAM constructing a Hamilton cycle in G(n,m,p) is the same as the threshold function for the minimum degree at least two. Until now, known algorithms for finding Hamilton cycles in G(n,m,p) were designed to work in very small ranges of parameters and, unlike HAM, used the structure of the family of random sets.

A Study of $k$-dipath Colourings of Oriented Graphs

Duffy, Christopher ; MacGillivray, Gary ; Sopena, Éric.
We examine $t$-colourings of oriented graphs in which, for a fixed integer $k \geq 1$, vertices joined by a directed path of length at most $k$ must be assigned different colours. A homomorphism model that extends the ideas of Sherk for the case $k=2$ is described. Dichotomy theorems for the complexity of the problem of deciding, for fixed $k$ and $t$, whether there exists such a $t$-colouring are proved.

Weak embeddings of posets to the Boolean lattice

Pálvölgyi, Dömötör.
The goal of this paper is to prove that several variants of deciding whether a poset can be (weakly) embedded into a small Boolean lattice, or to a few consecutive levels of a Boolean lattice, are NP-complete, answering a question of Griggs and of Patkos. As an equivalent reformulation of one of these problems, we also derive that it is NP-complete to decide whether a given graph can be embedded to the two middle levels of some hypercube.

Hitting minors, subdivisions, and immersions in tournaments

Raymond, Jean-Florent.
The Erdős-P\'osa property relates parameters of covering and packing of combinatorial structures and has been mostly studied in the setting of undirected graphs. In this note, we use results of Chudnovsky, Fradkin, Kim, and Seymour to show that, for every directed graph $H$ (resp. strongly-connected directed graph $H$), the class of directed graphs that contain $H$ as a strong minor (resp. butterfly minor, topological minor) has the vertex-Erdős-P\'osa property in the class of tournaments. We also prove that if $H$ is a strongly-connected directed graph, the class of directed graphs containing $H$ as an immersion has the edge-Erdős-P\'osa property in the class of tournaments.

A Variation on Chip-Firing: the diffusion game

Duffy, C. ; Lidbetter, T. F. ; Messinger, M. E. ; Nowakowski, R. J..
We introduce a natural variant of the parallel chip-firing game, called the diffusion game. Chips are initially assigned to vertices of a graph. At every step, all vertices simultaneously send one chip to each neighbour with fewer chips. As the dynamics of the parallel chip-firing game occur on a finite set the process is inherently periodic. However the diffusion game is not obviously periodic: even if $2|E(G)|$ chips are assigned to vertices of graph G, there may exist time steps where some vertices have a negative number of chips. We investigate the process, prove periodicity for a number of graph classes, and pose some questions for future research.

Three matching intersection property for matching covered graphs

Lin, Hao ; Wang, Xiumei.
In connection with Fulkerson's conjecture on cycle covers, Fan and Raspaud proposed a weaker conjecture: For every bridgeless cubic graph $G$, there are three perfect matchings $M_1$, $M_2$, and $M_3$ such that $M_1\cap M_2 \cap M_3=\emptyset$. We call the property specified in this conjecture the three matching intersection property (and 3PM property for short). We study this property on matching covered graphs. The main results are a necessary and sufficient condition and its applications to characterization of special graphs, such as the Halin graphs and 4-regular graphs.

On Minimum Maximal Distance-k Matchings

Kartynnik, Yury ; Ryzhikov, Andrew.
We study the computational complexity of several problems connected with finding a maximal distance-$k$ matching of minimum cardinality or minimum weight in a given graph. We introduce the class of $k$-equimatchable graphs which is an edge analogue of $k$-equipackable graphs. We prove that the recognition of $k$-equimatchable graphs is co-NP-complete for any fixed $k \ge 2$. We provide a simple characterization for the class of strongly chordal graphs with equal $k$-packing and $k$-domination numbers. We also prove that for any fixed integer $\ell \ge 1$ the problem of finding a minimum weight maximal distance-$2\ell$ matching and the problem of finding a minimum weight $(2 \ell - 1)$-independent dominating set cannot be approximated in polynomial time in chordal graphs within a factor of $\delta \ln |V(G)|$ unless $\mathrm{P} = \mathrm{NP}$, where $\delta$ is a fixed constant (thereby improving the NP-hardness result of Chang for the independent domination case). Finally, we show the […]

Graphs of Edge-Intersecting Non-Splitting Paths in a Tree: Representations of Holes-Part II

Boyacı, Arman ; Ekim, Tınaz ; Shalom, Mordechai ; Zaks, Shmuel.
Given a tree and a set P of non-trivial simple paths on it, VPT(P) is the VPT graph (i.e. the vertex intersection graph) of the paths P, and EPT(P) is the EPT graph (i.e. the edge intersection graph) of P. These graphs have been extensively studied in the literature. Given two (edge) intersecting paths in a graph, their split vertices is the set of vertices having degree at least 3 in their union. A pair of (edge) intersecting paths is termed non-splitting if they do not have split vertices (namely if their union is a path). We define the graph ENPT(P) of edge intersecting non-splitting paths of a tree, termed the ENPT graph, as the graph having a vertex for each path in P, and an edge between every pair of vertices representing two paths that are both edge-intersecting and non-splitting. A graph G is an ENPT graph if there is a tree T and a set of paths P of T such that G=ENPT(P), and we say that is a representation of G. Our goal is to characterize the representation of […]

Total Domination, Connected Vertex Cover and Steiner Tree with Conflicts

Cornet, Alexis ; Laforest, Christian.
Total dominating set, connected vertex cover and Steiner tree are well-known graph problems. Despite the fact that they are NP-complete to optimize, it is easy (even trivial) to find solutions, regardless of their size. In this paper, we study a variant of these problems by adding conflicts, that are pairs of vertices that cannot be both in a solution. This new constraint leads to situations where it is NP-complete to decide if there exists a solution avoiding conflicts. This paper proposes NP-completeness proofs of the existence of a solution for different restricted classes of graphs and conflicts, improving recent results. We also propose polynomial time constructions in several restricted cases and we introduce a new parameter, the stretch, to capture the locality of the conflicts.

A sufficient condition for a balanced bipartite digraph to be hamiltonian

Wang, Ruixia.
We describe a new type of sufficient condition for a balanced bipartite digraph to be hamiltonian. Let $D$ be a balanced bipartite digraph and $x,y$ be distinct vertices in $D$. $\{x, y\}$ dominates a vertex $z$ if $x\rightarrow z$ and $y\rightarrow z$; in this case, we call the pair $\{x, y\}$ dominating. In this paper, we prove that a strong balanced bipartite digraph $D$ on $2a$ vertices contains a hamiltonian cycle if, for every dominating pair of vertices $\{x, y\}$, either $d(x)\ge 2a-1$ and $d(y)\ge a+1$ or $d(x)\ge a+1$ and $d(y)\ge 2a-1$. The lower bound in the result is sharp.

Circular Separation Dimension of a Subclass of Planar Graphs

Bharathi, Arpitha P. ; De, Minati ; Lahiri, Abhiruk.
A pair of non-adjacent edges is said to be separated in a circular ordering of vertices, if the endpoints of the two edges do not alternate in the ordering. The circular separation dimension of a graph $G$, denoted by $\pi^\circ(G)$, is the minimum number of circular orderings of the vertices of $G$ such that every pair of non-adjacent edges is separated in at least one of the circular orderings. This notion is introduced by Loeb and West in their recent paper. In this article, we consider two subclasses of planar graphs, namely $2$-outerplanar graphs and series-parallel graphs. A $2$-outerplanar graph has a planar embedding such that the subgraph obtained by removal of the vertices of the exterior face is outerplanar. We prove that if $G$ is $2$-outerplanar then $\pi^\circ(G) = 2$. We also prove that if $G$ is a series-parallel graph then $\pi^\circ(G) \leq 2$.

On path-cycle decompositions of triangle-free graphs

Jiménez, Andrea ; Wakabayashi, Yoshiko.
In this work, we study conditions for the existence of length-constrained path-cycle decompositions, that is, partitions of the edge set of a graph into paths and cycles of a given minimum length. Our main contribution is the characterization of the class of all triangle-free graphs with odd distance at least $3$ that admit a path-cycle decomposition with elements of length at least $4$. As a consequence, it follows that Gallai's conjecture on path decomposition holds in a broad class of sparse graphs.

Tight upper bound on the maximum anti-forcing numbers of graphs

Shi, Lingjuan ; Zhang, Heping.
Let $G$ be a simple graph with a perfect matching. Deng and Zhang showed that the maximum anti-forcing number of $G$ is no more than the cyclomatic number. In this paper, we get a novel upper bound on the maximum anti-forcing number of $G$ and investigate the extremal graphs. If $G$ has a perfect matching $M$ whose anti-forcing number attains this upper bound, then we say $G$ is an extremal graph and $M$ is a nice perfect matching. We obtain an equivalent condition for the nice perfect matchings of $G$ and establish a one-to-one correspondence between the nice perfect matchings and the edge-involutions of $G$, which are the automorphisms $\alpha$ of order two such that $v$ and $\alpha(v)$ are adjacent for every vertex $v$. We demonstrate that all extremal graphs can be constructed from $K_2$ by implementing two expansion operations, and $G$ is extremal if and only if one factor in a Cartesian decomposition of $G$ is extremal. As examples, we have that all perfect matchings of […]

On rank-width of even-hole-free graphs

Adler, Isolde ; Le, Ngoc Khang ; Müller, Haiko ; Radovanović, Marko ; Trotignon, Nicolas ; Vušković, Kristina.
We present a class of (diamond, even hole)-free graphs with no clique cutset that has unbounded rank-width. In general, even-hole-free graphs have unbounded rank-width, because chordal graphs are even-hole-free. A.A. da Silva, A. Silva and C. Linhares-Sales (2010) showed that planar even-hole-free graphs have bounded rank-width, and N.K. Le (2016) showed that even-hole-free graphs with no star cutset have bounded rank-width. A natural question is to ask, whether even-hole-free graphs with no clique cutsets have bounded rank-width. Our result gives a negative answer. Hence we cannot apply Courcelle and Makowsky's meta-theorem which would provide efficient algorithms for a large number of problems, including the maximum independent set problem, whose complexity remains open for (diamond, even hole)-free graphs.

Irreversible 2-conversion set in graphs of bounded degree

Kynčl, Jan ; Lidický, Bernard ; Vyskočil, Tomáš.
An irreversible $k$-threshold process (also a $k$-neighbor bootstrap percolation) is a dynamic process on a graph where vertices change color from white to black if they have at least $k$ black neighbors. An irreversible $k$-conversion set of a graph $G$ is a subset $S$ of vertices of $G$ such that the irreversible $k$-threshold process starting with $S$ black eventually changes all vertices of $G$ to black. We show that deciding the existence of an irreversible 2-conversion set of a given size is NP-complete, even for graphs of maximum degree 4, which answers a question of Dreyer and Roberts. Conversely, we show that for graphs of maximum degree 3, the minimum size of an irreversible 2-conversion set can be computed in polynomial time. Moreover, we find an optimal irreversible 3-conversion set for the toroidal grid, simplifying constructions of Pike and Zou.

Characterizations of minimal dominating sets and the well-dominated property in lexicographic product graphs

Gözüpek, Didem ; Hujdurović, Ademir ; Milanič, Martin.
A graph is said to be well-dominated if all its minimal dominating sets are of the same size. The class of well-dominated graphs forms a subclass of the well studied class of well-covered graphs. While the recognition problem for the class of well-covered graphs is known to be co-NP-complete, the recognition complexity of well-dominated graphs is open. In this paper we introduce the notion of an irreducible dominating set, a variant of dominating set generalizing both minimal dominating sets and minimal total dominating sets. Based on this notion, we characterize the family of minimal dominating sets in a lexicographic product of two graphs and derive a characterization of the well-dominated lexicographic product graphs. As a side result motivated by this study, we give a polynomially testable characterization of well-dominated graphs with domination number two, and show, more generally, that well-dominated graphs can be recognized in polynomial time in any class of graphs with […]

On a combination of the 1-2-3 Conjecture and the Antimagic Labelling Conjecture

Bensmail, Julien ; Senhaji, Mohammed ; Szabo Lyngsie, Kasper.
This paper is dedicated to studying the following question: Is it always possible to injectively assign the weights 1, ..., |E(G)| to the edges of any given graph G (with no component isomorphic to K2) so that every two adjacent vertices of G get distinguished by their sums of incident weights? One may see this question as a combination of the well-known 1-2-3 Conjecture and the Antimagic Labelling Conjecture. Throughout this paper, we exhibit evidence that this question might be true. Benefiting from the investigations on the Antimagic Labelling Conjecture, we first point out that several classes of graphs, such as regular graphs, indeed admit such assignments. We then show that trees also do, answering a recent conjecture of Arumugam, Premalatha, Bača and Semaničová-Feňovčíková. Towards a general answer to the question above, we then prove that claimed assignments can be constructed for any graph, provided we are allowed to use some number of additional edge weights. For some classes […]

Nonrepetitive edge-colorings of trees

Kündgen, A. ; Talbot, T..
A repetition is a sequence of symbols in which the first half is the same as the second half. An edge-coloring of a graph is repetition-free or nonrepetitive if there is no path with a color pattern that is a repetition. The minimum number of colors so that a graph has a nonrepetitive edge-coloring is called its Thue edge-chromatic number. We improve on the best known general upper bound of $4\Delta-4$ for the Thue edge-chromatic number of trees of maximum degree $\Delta$ due to Alon, Grytczuk, Ha{\l}uszczak and Riordan (2002) by providing a simple nonrepetitive edge-coloring with $3\Delta-2$ colors.

Equivalence of the filament and overlap graphs of subtrees of limited trees

Enright, Jessica ; Stewart, Lorna.
The overlap graphs of subtrees of a tree are equivalent to subtree filament graphs, the overlap graphs of subtrees of a star are cocomparability graphs, and the overlap graphs of subtrees of a caterpillar are interval filament graphs. In this paper, we show the equivalence of many more classes of subtree overlap and subtree filament graphs, and equate them to classes of complements of cochordal-mixed graphs. Our results generalize the previously known results mentioned above.

Graphs of Edge-Intersecting and Non-Splitting One Bend Paths in a Grid

Boyacı, Arman ; Ekim, Tınaz ; Shalom, Mordechai ; Zaks, Shmuel.
The families EPT (resp. EPG) Edge Intersection Graphs of Paths in a tree (resp. in a grid) are well studied graph classes. Recently we introduced the graph classes Edge-Intersecting and Non-Splitting Paths in a Tree ENPT, and in a Grid (ENPG). It was shown that ENPG contains an infinite hierarchy of subclasses that are obtained by restricting the number of bends in the paths. Motivated by this result, in this work we focus on one bend {ENPG} graphs. We show that one bend ENPG graphs are properly included in two bend ENPG graphs. We also show that trees and cycles are one bend ENPG graphs, and characterize the split graphs and co-bipartite graphs that are one bend ENPG. We prove that the recognition problem of one bend ENPG split graphs is NP-complete even in a very restricted subfamily of split graphs. Last we provide a linear time recognition algorithm for one bend ENPG co-bipartite graphs.

The quotients between the (revised) Szeged index and Wiener index of graphs

Zhang, Huihui ; Chen, Jing ; Li, Shuchao.
Let $Sz(G),Sz^*(G)$ and $W(G)$ be the Szeged index, revised Szeged index and Wiener index of a graph $G.$ In this paper, the graphs with the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh largest Wiener indices among all unicyclic graphs of order $n\geqslant 10$ are characterized; as well the graphs with the first, second, third, and fourth largest Wiener indices among all bicyclic graphs are identified. Based on these results, further relation on the quotients between the (revised) Szeged index and the Wiener index are studied. Sharp lower bound on $Sz(G)/W(G)$ is determined for all connected graphs each of which contains at least one non-complete block. As well the connected graph with the second smallest value on $Sz^*(G)/W(G)$ is identified for $G$ containing at least one cycle.

The Existence of Planar Hypotraceable Oriented Graphs

van Aardt, Susan,  ; Burger, Alewyn Petrus ; Frick, Marietjie.
A digraph is \emph{traceable} if it has a path that visits every vertex. A digraph $D$ is \emph{hypotraceable} if $D$ is not traceable but $D-v$ is traceable for every vertex $v\in V(D)$. It is known that there exists a planar hypotraceable digraph of order $n$ for every $n\geq 7$, but no examples of planar hypotraceable oriented graphs (digraphs without 2-cycles) have yet appeared in the literature. We show that there exists a planar hypotraceable oriented graph of order $n$ for every even $n \geq 10$, with the possible exception of $n = 14$.

A characterization of trees with equal 2-domination and 2-independence numbers

Brause, Christoph ; Henning, Michael A. ; Krzywkowski, Marcin.
A set $S$ of vertices in a graph $G$ is a $2$-dominating set if every vertex of $G$ not in $S$ is adjacent to at least two vertices in $S$, and $S$ is a $2$-independent set if every vertex in $S$ is adjacent to at most one vertex of $S$. The $2$-domination number $\gamma_2(G)$ is the minimum cardinality of a $2$-dominating set in $G$, and the $2$-independence number $\alpha_2(G)$ is the maximum cardinality of a $2$-independent set in $G$. Chellali and Meddah [{\it Trees with equal $2$-domination and $2$-independence numbers,} Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory 32 (2012), 263--270] provided a constructive characterization of trees with equal $2$-domination and $2$-independence numbers. Their characterization is in terms of global properties of a tree, and involves properties of minimum $2$-dominating and maximum $2$-independent sets in the tree at each stage of the construction. We provide a constructive characterization that relies only on local properties of the tree at each […]

A New Game Invariant of Graphs: the Game Distinguishing Number

Gravier, Sylvain ; Meslem, Kahina ; Schmidt, Simon ; Slimani, Souad.
The distinguishing number of a graph $G$ is a symmetry related graph invariant whose study started two decades ago. The distinguishing number $D(G)$ is the least integer $d$ such that $G$ has a $d$-distinguishing coloring. A distinguishing $d$-coloring is a coloring $c:V(G)\rightarrow\{1,...,d\}$ invariant only under the trivial automorphism. In this paper, we introduce a game variant of the distinguishing number. The distinguishing game is a game with two players, the Gentle and the Rascal, with antagonist goals. This game is played on a graph $G$ with a set of $d\in\mathbb N^*$ colors. Alternately, the two players choose a vertex of $G$ and color it with one of the $d$ colors. The game ends when all the vertices have been colored. Then the Gentle wins if the coloring is distinguishing and the Rascal wins otherwise. This game leads to define two new invariants for a graph $G$, which are the minimum numbers of colors needed to ensure that the Gentle has a winning strategy, depending […]

Mixing Times of Markov Chains on Degree Constrained Orientations of Planar Graphs

Felsner, Stefan ; Heldt, Daniel.
We study Markov chains for $\alpha$-orientations of plane graphs, these are orientations where the outdegree of each vertex is prescribed by the value of a given function $\alpha$. The set of $\alpha$-orientations of a plane graph has a natural distributive lattice structure. The moves of the up-down Markov chain on this distributive lattice corresponds to reversals of directed facial cycles in the $\alpha$-orientation. We have a positive and several negative results regarding the mixing time of such Markov chains. A 2-orientation of a plane quadrangulation is an orientation where every inner vertex has outdegree 2. We show that there is a class of plane quadrangulations such that the up-down Markov chain on the 2-orientations of these quadrangulations is slowly mixing. On the other hand the chain is rapidly mixing on 2-orientations of quadrangulations with maximum degree at most 4. Regarding examples for slow mixing we also revisit the case of 3-orientations of triangulations […]

Linear recognition of generalized Fibonacci cubes $Q_h(111)$

Rho, Yoomi ; Vesel, Aleksander.
The generalized Fibonacci cube $Q_h(f)$ is the graph obtained from the $h$-cube $Q_h$ by removing all vertices that contain a given binary string $f$ as a substring. In particular, the vertex set of the 3rd order generalized Fibonacci cube $Q_h(111)$ is the set of all binary strings $b_1b_2 \ldots b_h$ containing no three consecutive 1's. We present a new characterization of the 3rd order generalized Fibonacci cubes based on their recursive structure. The characterization is the basis for an algorithm which recognizes these graphs in linear time.

Matchings of quadratic size extend to long cycles in hypercubes

Dvořák, Tomáš.
Ruskey and Savage in 1993 asked whether every matching in a hypercube can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle. A positive answer is known for perfect matchings, but the general case has been resolved only for matchings of linear size. In this paper we show that there is a quadratic function $q(n)$ such that every matching in the $n$-dimensional hypercube of size at most $q(n)$ may be extended to a cycle which covers at least $\frac34$ of the vertices.

Connected Tropical Subgraphs in Vertex-Colored Graphs

Anglès d'Auriac, Jean-Alexandre ; Cohen, Nathann ; El Mafthoui, Hakim ; Harutyunyan, Ararat ; Legay, Sylvain ; Manoussakis, Yannis.
A subgraph of a vertex-colored graph is said to be tropical whenever it contains each color of the graph. In this work we study the problem of finding a minimal connected tropical subgraph. We first show that this problem is NP-Hard for trees, interval graphs and split graphs, but polynomial when the number of colors is logarithmic in terms of the order of the graph (i.e. FPT). We then provide upper bounds for the order of the minimal connected tropical subgraph under various conditions. We finally study the problem of finding a connected tropical subgraph in a randomly vertex-colored random graph.

An extremal problem for a graphic sequence to have a realization containing every 2-tree with prescribed size

Zeng, De-Yan ; Yin, Jian-Hua.
A graph $G$ is a $2$-tree if $G=K_3$, or $G$ has a vertex $v$ of degree 2, whose neighbors are adjacent, and $G-v$ is a 2-tree. Clearly, if $G$ is a 2-tree on $n$ vertices, then $|E(G)|=2n-3$. A non-increasing sequence $\pi =(d_1, \ldots ,d_n)$ of nonnegative integers is a graphic sequence if it is realizable by a simple graph $G$ on $n$ vertices. Yin and Li (Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series, 25(2009)795–802) proved that if $k \geq 2$, $n \geq \frac{9}{2}k^2 + \frac{19}{2}k$ and $\pi =(d_1, \ldots ,d_n)$ is a graphic sequence with $\sum \limits_{i=1}^n d_i > (k-2)n$, then $\pi$ has a realization containing every tree on $k$ vertices as a subgraph. Moreover, the lower bound $(k-2)n$ is the best possible. This is a variation of a conjecture due to Erdős and Sós. In this paper, we investigate an analogue extremal problem for 2-trees and prove that if $k \geq 3$, $n \geq 2k^2-k$ and $\pi =(d_1, \ldots ,d_n)$ is a graphic sequence with $\sum […]

On degree-sequence characterization and the extremal number of edges for various Hamiltonian properties under fault tolerance

Chen, Shih-Yan ; Kao, Shin-Shin ; Su, Hsun.
Assume that $n, \delta ,k$ are integers with $0 \leq k < \delta < n$. Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ with $|V|=n$. The symbol $G-F, F \subseteq V$, denotes the graph with $V(G-F)=V-F$, and $E(G-F)$ obtained by $E$ after deleting the edges with at least one endvertex in $F$. $G$ is called $k$-vertex fault traceable, $k$-vertex fault Hamiltonian, or $k$-vertex fault Hamiltonian-connected if $G-F$ remains traceable, Hamiltonian, and Hamiltonian-connected for all $F$ with $0 \leq |F| \leq k$, respectively. The notations $h_1(n, \delta ,k)$, $h_2(n, \delta ,k)$, and $h_3(n, \delta ,k)$ denote the minimum number of edges required to guarantee an $n$-vertex graph with minimum degree $\delta (G) \geq \delta$ to be $k$-vertex fault traceable, $k$-vertex fault Hamiltonian, and $k$-vertex fault Hamiltonian-connected, respectively. In this paper, we establish a theorem which uses the degree sequence of a given graph to characterize the $k$-vertex fault […]

Edge Disjoint Hamilton Cycles in Knödel Graphs

Paulraja, Palanivel Subramania Nadar ; Sampath Kumar, S.
The vertices of the Knödel graph $W_{\Delta, n}$ on $n \geq 2$ vertices, $n$ even, and of maximum degree $\Delta, 1 \leq \Delta \leq \lfloor log_2(n) \rfloor$, are the pairs $(i,j)$ with $i=1,2$ and $0 \leq j \leq \frac{n}{2} -1$. For $0 \leq j \leq \frac{n}{2} -1$, there is an edge between vertex $(1,j)$ and every vertex $(2,j + 2^k - 1 (mod \frac{n}{2}))$, for $k=0,1,2, \ldots , \Delta -1$. Existence of a Hamilton cycle decomposition of $W_{k, 2k}, k \geq 6$ is not yet known, see Discrete Appl. Math. 137 (2004) 173-195. In this paper, it is shown that the $k$-regular Knödel graph $W_{k,2k}, k \geq 6$ has $ \lfloor \frac{k}{2} \rfloor - 1$ edge disjoint Hamilton cycles.

Traceability of locally hamiltonian and locally traceable graphs

De Wet, Johan ; Van Aardt, Susan.
If $\mathcal{P}$ is a given graph property, we say that a graph $G$ is locally $\mathcal{P}$ if $\langle N(v) \rangle$ has property $\mathcal{P}$ for every $v \in V(G)$ where $\langle N(v) \rangle$ is the induced graph on the open neighbourhood of the vertex $v$. Pareek and Skupien (C. M. Pareek and Z. Skupien , On the smallest non-Hamiltonian locally Hamiltonian graph, J. Univ. Kuwait (Sci.), 10:9 - 17, 1983) posed the following two questions. Question 1 Is 9 the smallest order of a connected nontraceable locally traceable graph? Question 2 Is 14 the smallest order of a connected nontraceable locally hamiltonian graph? We answer the second question in the affirmative, but show that the correct number for the first question is 10. We develop a technique to construct connected locally hamiltonian and locally traceable graphs that are not traceable. We use this technique to construct such graphs with various prescribed properties.

The inapproximability for the $(0,1)$-additive number

Ahadi, Arash ; Dehghan, Ali.
An additive labeling of a graph $G$ is a function $\ell :V(G) \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$, such that for every two adjacent vertices $v$ and $u$ of $G$, $\Sigma_{w \sim v} \ell (w) \neq \Sigma_{w \sim u} \ell (w)$ ($x \sim y$ means that $x$ is joined to $y$). The additive number of $G$, denoted by $\eta (G)$, is the minimum number $k$ such that $G$ has a additive labeling $\ell : V(G) \rightarrow \mathbb{N}_k$. The additive choosability of a graph $G$, denoted by $\eta_\ell (G)$, is the smallest number $k$ such that $G$ has an additive labeling for any assignment of lists of size $k$ to the vertices of $G$, such that the label of each vertex belongs to its own list. Seamone in his PhD thesis conjectured that for every graph $G$, $\eta(G)= \eta_\ell (G)$. We give a negative answer to this conjecture and we show that for every $k$ there is a graph $G$ such that $\eta_\ell (G) - \eta(G) \geq k$. A $(0,1)$-additive labeling of a graph $G$ is a function $\ell :V(G) \rightarrow […]

The irregularity of two types of trees

Jianxi, Li ; Liu, Yang ; Shiu, Wai.
The irregularity of a graph $G$ is defined as the sum of weights $|d(u)-d(v)|$ of all edges $uv$ of $G$, where $d(u)$ and $d(v)$ are the degrees of the vertices $u$ and $v$ in $G$, respectively. In this paper, some structural properties on trees with maximum (or minimum) irregularity among trees with given degree sequence and trees with given branching number are explored, respectively. Moreover, the corresponding trees with maximum (or minimum) irregularity are also found, respectively.

Partitioning the vertex set of $G$ to make $G\,\Box\, H$ an efficient open domination graph

Šumenjak, Tadeja Kraner ; Peterin, Iztok ; Rall, Douglas F. ; Tepeh, Aleksandra.
A graph is an efficient open domination graph if there exists a subset of vertices whose open neighborhoods partition its vertex set. We characterize those graphs $G$ for which the Cartesian product $G \Box H$ is an efficient open domination graph when $H$ is a complete graph of order at least 3 or a complete bipartite graph. The characterization is based on the existence of a certain type of weak partition of $V(G)$. For the class of trees when $H$ is complete of order at least 3, the characterization is constructive. In addition, a special type of efficient open domination graph is characterized among Cartesian products $G \Box H$ when $H$ is a 5-cycle or a 4-cycle.

Planar graphs with $\Delta \geq 7$ and no triangle adjacent to a $C_4$ are minimally edge and total choosable

Bonamy, Marthe ; Lévêque, Benjamin ; Pinlou, Alexandre.
For planar graphs, we consider the problems of list edge coloring and list total coloring. Edge coloring is the problem of coloring the edges while ensuring that two edges that are adjacent receive different colors. Total coloring is the problem of coloring the edges and the vertices while ensuring that two edges that are adjacent, two vertices that are adjacent, or a vertex and an edge that are incident receive different colors. In their list extensions, instead of having the same set of colors for the whole graph, every vertex or edge is assigned some set of colors and has to be colored from it. A graph is minimally edge or total choosable if it is list $\Delta$-edge-colorable or list $(\Delta +1)$-total-colorable, respectively, where $\Delta$ is the maximum degree in the graph. It is already known that planar graphs with $\Delta \geq 8$ and no triangle adjacent to a $C_4$ are minimally edge and total choosable (Li Xu 2011), and that planar graphs with $\Delta \geq 7$ […]

Rainbow eulerian multidigraphs and the product of cycles

López, Susana ; Muntaner-Batle, Francesc-Antoni.
An arc colored eulerian multidigraph with $l$ colors is rainbow eulerian if there is an eulerian circuit in which a sequence of $l$ colors repeats. The digraph product that refers the title was introduced by Figueroa-Centeno et al. as follows: let $D$ be a digraph and let $\Gamma$ be a family of digraphs such that $V(F)=V$ for every $F\in \Gamma$. Consider any function $h:E(D) \longrightarrow \Gamma$. Then the product $D \otimes_h \Gamma$ is the digraph with vertex set $V(D) \times V$ and $((a,x),(b,y)) \in E(D \otimes_h \Gamma)$ if and only if $(a,b) \in E(D)$ and $(x,y) \in E(h (a,b))$. In this paper we use rainbow eulerian multidigraphs and permutations as a way to characterize the $\otimes_h$-product of oriented cycles. We study the behavior of the $\otimes_h$-product when applied to digraphs with unicyclic components. The results obtained allow us to get edge-magic labelings of graphs formed by the union of unicyclic components and with different magic sums.

Heredity for generalized power domination

Dorbec, Paul ; Varghese, Seethu ; Vijayakumar, Ambat.
In this paper, we study the behaviour of the generalized power domination number of a graph by small changes on the graph, namely edge and vertex deletion and edge contraction. We prove optimal bounds for $\gamma_{p,k}(G-e)$, $\gamma_{p,k}(G/e)$ and for $\gamma_{p,k}(G-v)$ in terms of $\gamma_{p,k}(G)$, and give examples for which these bounds are tight. We characterize all graphs for which $\gamma_{p,k}(G-e) = \gamma_{p,k}(G)+1$ for any edge $e$. We also consider the behaviour of the propagation radius of graphs by similar modifications.

Open k-monopolies in graphs: complexity and related concepts

Kuziak, Dorota ; Peterin, Iztok ; Yero, Ismael G..
Closed monopolies in graphs have a quite long range of applications in several problems related to overcoming failures, since they frequently have some common approaches around the notion of majorities, for instance to consensus problems, diagnosis problems or voting systems. We introduce here open $k$-monopolies in graphs which are closely related to different parameters in graphs. Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and $X\subseteq V$, if $\delta_X(v)$ is the number of neighbors $v$ has in $X$, $k$ is an integer and $t$ is a positive integer, then we establish in this article a connection between the following three concepts: - Given a nonempty set $M\subseteq V$ a vertex $v$ of $G$ is said to be $k$-controlled by $M$ if $\delta_M(v)\ge \frac{\delta_V(v)}{2}+k$. The set $M$ is called an open $k$-monopoly for $G$ if it $k$-controls every vertex $v$ of $G$. - A function $f: V\rightarrow \{-1,1\}$ is called a signed total $t$-dominating function for $G$ if $f(N(v))=\sum_{v\in N(v)}f(v)\geq t$ […]

Edge-partitioning graphs into regular and locally irregular components

Bensmail, Julien ; Stevens, Brett.
A graph is locally irregular if every two adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. Recently, Baudon et al. introduced the notion of decomposition into locally irregular subgraphs. They conjectured that for almost every graph $G$, there exists a minimum integer $\chi^{\prime}_{\mathrm{irr}}(G)$ such that $G$ admits an edge-partition into $\chi^{\prime}_{\mathrm{irr}}(G)$ classes, each of which induces a locally irregular graph. In particular, they conjectured that $\chi^{\prime}_{\mathrm{irr}}(G) \leq 3$ for every $G$, unless $G$ belongs to a well-characterized family of non-decomposable graphs. This conjecture is far from being settled, as notably (1) no constant upper bound on$\chi^{\prime}_{\mathrm{irr}}(G)$ is known for $G$ bipartite, and (2) no satisfactory general upper bound on $\chi^{\prime}_{\mathrm{irr}}(G)$ is known. We herein investigate the consequences on this question of allowing a decomposition to include regular components as well. As a main result, we prove that every […]

The complexity of deciding whether a graph admits an orientation with fixed weak diameter

Bensmail, Julien ; Duvignau, Romaric ; Kirgizov, Sergey.
An oriented graph $\overrightarrow{G}$ is said weak (resp. strong) if, for every pair $\{ u,v \}$ of vertices of $\overrightarrow{G}$, there are directed paths joining $u$ and $v$ in either direction (resp. both directions). In case, for every pair of vertices, some of these directed paths have length at most $k$, we call $\overrightarrow{G}$ $k$-weak (resp. $k$-strong). We consider several problems asking whether an undirected graph $G$ admits orientations satisfying some connectivity and distance properties. As a main result, we show that deciding whether $G$ admits a $k$-weak orientation is NP-complete for every $k \geq 2$. This notably implies the NP-completeness of several problems asking whether $G$ is an extremal graph (in terms of needed colours) for some vertex-colouring problems.

Vertex-Coloring Edge-Weighting of Bipartite Graphs with Two Edge Weights

Lu, Hongliang.
Let $G$ be a graph and $\mathcal{S}$ be a subset of $Z$. A vertex-coloring $\mathcal{S}$-edge-weighting of $G$ is an assignment of weights by the elements of $\mathcal{S}$ to each edge of $G$ so that adjacent vertices have different sums of incident edges weights. It was proved that every 3-connected bipartite graph admits a vertex-coloring $\mathcal{S}$-edge-weighting for $\mathcal{S} = \{1,2 \}$ (H. Lu, Q. Yu and C. Zhang, Vertex-coloring 2-edge-weighting of graphs, European J. Combin., 32 (2011), 22-27). In this paper, we show that every 2-connected and 3-edge-connected bipartite graph admits a vertex-coloring $\mathcal{S}$-edge-weighting for $\mathcal{S} \in \{ \{ 0,1 \} , \{1,2 \} \}$. These bounds we obtain are tight, since there exists a family of infinite bipartite graphs which are 2-connected and do not admit vertex-coloring $\mathcal{S}$-edge-weightings for $\mathcal{S} \in \{ \{ 0,1 \} , \{1,2 \} \}$.

The double competition multigraph of a digraph

Sano, Yoshio ; Park, Jeongmi.
In this article, we introduce the notion of the double competition multigraph of a digraph. We give characterizations of the double competition multigraphs of arbitrary digraphs, loopless digraphs, reflexive digraphs, and acyclic digraphs in terms of edge clique partitions of the multigraphs.

The game colouring number of powers of forests

Andres, Stephan Dominique ; Hochstättler, Winfried.
We prove that the game colouring number of the $m$-th power of a forest of maximum degree $\Delta\ge3$ is bounded from above by \[\frac{(\Delta-1)^m-1}{\Delta-2}+2^m+1,\] which improves the best known bound by an asymptotic factor of 2.

Cubical coloring — fractional covering by cuts and semidefinite programming

Šámal, Robert.
We introduce a new graph parameter that measures fractional covering of a graph by cuts. Besides being interesting in its own right, it is useful for study of homomorphisms and tension-continuous mappings. We study the relations with chromatic number, bipartite density, and other graph parameters. We find the value of our parameter for a family of graphs based on hypercubes. These graphs play for our parameter the role that cliques play for the chromatic number and Kneser graphs for the fractional chromatic number. The fact that the defined parameter attains on these graphs the correct value suggests that our definition is a natural one. In the proof we use the eigenvalue bound for maximum cut and a recent result of Engström, Färnqvist, Jonsson, and Thapper [An approximability-related parameter on graphs – properties and applications, DMTCS vol. 17:1, 2015, 33–66]. We also provide a polynomial time approximation algorithm based on semidefinite programming and in […]

Disimplicial arcs, transitive vertices, and disimplicial eliminations

Eguia, Martiniano ; Soulignac, Francisco, .
In this article we deal with the problems of finding the disimplicial arcs of a digraph and recognizing some interesting graph classes defined by their existence. A diclique of a digraph is a pair $V$ → $W$ of sets of vertices such that $v$ → $w$ is an arc for every $v$ ∈ $V$ and $w$ ∈ $W$. An arc $v$ → $w$ is disimplicial when it belongs to a unique maximal diclique. We show that the problem of finding the disimplicial arcs is equivalent, in terms of time and space complexity, to that of locating the transitive vertices. As a result, an efficient algorithm to find the bisimplicial edges of bipartite graphs is obtained. Then, we develop simple algorithms to build disimplicial elimination schemes, which can be used to generate bisimplicial elimination schemes for bipartite graphs. Finally, we study two classes related to perfect disimplicial elimination digraphs, namely weakly diclique irreducible digraphs and diclique irreducible digraphs. The […]

Packing Plane Perfect Matchings into a Point Set

Biniaz, Ahmad ; Bose, Prosenjit ; Maheshwari, Anil ; Smid, Michiel.
Given a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane, where $n$ is even, we consider the following question: How many plane perfect matchings can be packed into $P$? For points in general position we prove the lower bound of ⌊log2$n$⌋$-1$. For some special configurations of point sets, we give the exact answer. We also consider some restricted variants of this problem.

The complexity of $P$4-decomposition of regular graphs and multigraphs

Diwan, Ajit ; Dion, Justine ; Mendell, David ; Plantholt, Michael ; Tipnis, Shailesh.
Let G denote a multigraph with edge set E(G), let µ(G) denote the maximum edge multiplicity in G, and let Pk denote the path on k vertices. Heinrich et al.(1999) showed that P4 decomposes a connected 4-regular graph G if and only if |E(G)| is divisible by 3. We show that P4 decomposes a connected 4-regular multigraph G with µ(G) ≤2 if and only if no 3 vertices of G induce more than 4 edges and |E(G)| is divisible by 3. Oksimets (2003) proved that for all integers k ≥3, P4 decomposes a connected 2k-regular graph G if and only if |E(G)| is divisible by 3. We prove that for all integers k ≥2, the problem of determining if P4 decomposes a (2k + 1)-regular graph is NP-Complete. El-Zanati et al.(2014) showed that for all integers k ≥1, every 6k-regular multigraph with µ(G) ≤2k has a P4-decomposition. We show that unless P = NP, this result is best possible with respect to µ(G) by proving that for all integers k ≥3 the problem […]

On graphs double-critical with respect to the colouring number

Kriesell, Matthias ; Pedersen, Anders.
The colouring number col($G$) of a graph $G$ is the smallest integer $k$ for which there is an ordering of the vertices of $G$ such that when removing the vertices of $G$ in the specified order no vertex of degree more than $k-1$ in the remaining graph is removed at any step. An edge $e$ of a graph $G$ is said to be double-col-critical if the colouring number of $G-V(e)$ is at most the colouring number of $G$ minus 2. A connected graph G is said to be double-col-critical if each edge of $G$ is double-col-critical. We characterise the double-col-critical graphs with colouring number at most 5. In addition, we prove that every 4-col-critical non-complete graph has at most half of its edges being double-col-critical, and that the extremal graphs are precisely the odd wheels on at least six vertices. We observe that for any integer $k$ greater than 4 and any positive number $ε$, there is a $k$-col-critical graph with the ratio of double-col-critical […]

The game chromatic number of trees and forests

Dunn, Charles ; Larsen, Victor ; Lindke, Kira ; Retter, Troy ; Toci, Dustin.
While the game chromatic number of a forest is known to be at most 4, no simple criteria are known for determining the game chromatic number of a forest. We first state necessary and sufficient conditions for forests with game chromatic number 2 and then investigate the differences between forests with game chromatic number 3 and 4. In doing so, we present a minimal example of a forest with game chromatic number 4, criteria for determining in polynomial time the game chromatic number of a forest without vertices of degree 3, and an example of a forest with maximum degree 3 and game chromatic number 4. This gives partial progress on the open question of the computational complexity of the game chromatic number of a forest.

Snarks with total chromatic number 5

Brinkmann, Gunnar ; Preissmann, Myriam ; Sasaki, Diana.
A k-total-coloring of G is an assignment of k colors to the edges and vertices of G, so that adjacent and incident elements have different colors. The total chromatic number of G, denoted by χT(G), is the least k for which G has a k-total-coloring. It was proved by Rosenfeld that the total chromatic number of a cubic graph is either 4 or 5. Cubic graphs with χT = 4 are said to be Type 1, and cubic graphs with χT = 5 are said to be Type 2. Snarks are cyclically 4-edge-connected cubic graphs that do not allow a 3-edge-coloring. In 2003, Cavicchioli et al. asked for a Type 2 snark with girth at least 5. As neither Type 2 cubic graphs with girth at least 5 nor Type 2 snarks are known, this is taking two steps at once, and the two requirements of being a snark and having girth at least 5 should better be treated independently. In this paper we will show that the property of being a snark can be combined with being Type 2. We will give a construction that gives Type 2 snarks for each even […]

Maximum difference about the size of optimal identifying codes in graphs differing by one vertex

Pelto, Mikko.
Let G=(V,E) be a simple undirected graph. We call any subset C⊆V an identifying code if the sets I(v)={c∈C | {v,c}∈E or v=c } are distinct and non-empty for all vertices v∈V. A graph is called twin-free if there is an identifying code in the graph. The identifying code with minimum size in a twin-free graph G is called the optimal identifying code and the size of such a code is denoted by γ(G). Let GS denote the induced subgraph of G where the vertex set S⊂V is deleted. We provide a tight upper bound for γ(GS)-γ(G) when both graphs are twin-free and |V| is large enough with respect to |S|. Moreover, we prove tight upper bound when G is a bipartite graph and |S|=1.

Graphs with large disjunctive total domination number

Henning, Michael A. ; Naicker, Viroshan.
Let G be a graph with no isolated vertex. In this paper, we study a parameter that is a relaxation of arguably the most important domination parameter, namely the total domination number, γt(G). A set S of vertices in G is a disjunctive total dominating set of G if every vertex is adjacent to a vertex of S or has at least two vertices in S at distance 2 from it. The disjunctive total domination number, γdt(G), is the minimum cardinality of such a set. We observe that γdt(G) ≤γt(G). Let G be a connected graph on n vertices with minimum degree δ. It is known [J. Graph Theory 35 (2000), 21 13;45] that if δ≥2 and n ≥11, then γt(G) ≤4n/7. Further [J. Graph Theory 46 (2004), 207 13;210] if δ≥3, then γt(G) ≤n/2. We prove that if δ≥2 and n ≥8, then γdt(G) ≤n/2 and we characterize the extremal graphs.

Extending a perfect matching to a Hamiltonian cycle

Alahmadi, Adel ; Aldred, Robert E. L. ; Alkenani, Ahmad ; Hijazi, Rola ; Solé, P. ; Thomassen, Carsten.
Ruskey and Savage conjectured that in the d-dimensional hypercube, every matching M can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle. Fink verified this for every perfect matching M, remarkably even if M contains external edges. We prove that this property also holds for sparse spanning regular subgraphs of the cubes: for every d ≥7 and every k, where 7 ≤k ≤d, the d-dimensional hypercube contains a k-regular spanning subgraph such that every perfect matching (possibly with external edges) can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle. We do not know if this result can be extended to k=4,5,6. It cannot be extended to k=3. Indeed, there are only three 3-regular graphs such that every perfect matching (possibly with external edges) can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle, namely the complete graph on 4 vertices, the complete bipartite 3-regular graph on 6 vertices and the 3-cube on 8 vertices. Also, we do not know if there are graphs of girth at least 5 with this matching-extendability property.

A conjecture on the number of Hamiltonian cycles on thin grid cylinder graphs

Bodroža-Pantić, Olga ; Kwong, Harris ; Pantić, Milan.
We study the enumeration of Hamiltonian cycles on the thin grid cylinder graph $C_m \times P_{n+1}$. We distinguish two types of Hamiltonian cycles, and denote their numbers $h_m^A(n)$ and $h_m^B(n)$. For fixed $m$, both of them satisfy linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients, and we derive their generating functions and other related results for $m\leq10$. The computational data we gathered suggests that $h^A_m(n)\sim h^B_m(n)$ when $m$ is even.

On probe 2-clique graphs and probe diamond-free graphs

Bonomo, Flavia ; Figueiredo, Celina M. H.,  ; Duran, Guillermo ; Grippo, Luciano N. ; Safe, Martín D. ; Szwarcfiter, Jayme L..
Given a class G of graphs, probe G graphs are defined as follows. A graph G is probe G if there exists a partition of its vertices into a set of probe vertices and a stable set of nonprobe vertices in such a way that non-edges of G, whose endpoints are nonprobe vertices, can be added so that the resulting graph belongs to G. We investigate probe 2-clique graphs and probe diamond-free graphs. For probe 2-clique graphs, we present a polynomial-time recognition algorithm. Probe diamond-free graphs are characterized by minimal forbidden induced subgraphs. As a by-product, it is proved that the class of probe block graphs is the intersection between the classes of chordal graphs and probe diamond-free graphs.

p-box: a new graph model

Soto, Mauricio ; Thraves-Caro, Christopher.
In this document, we study the scope of the following graph model: each vertex is assigned to a box in ℝd and to a representative element that belongs to that box. Two vertices are connected by an edge if and only if its respective boxes contain the opposite representative element. We focus our study on the case where boxes (and therefore representative elements) associated to vertices are spread in ℝ. We give both, a combinatorial and an intersection characterization of the model. Based on these characterizations, we determine graph families that contain the model (e. g., boxicity 2 graphs) and others that the new model contains (e. g., rooted directed path). We also study the particular case where each representative element is the center of its respective box. In this particular case, we provide constructive representations for interval, block and outerplanar graphs. Finally, we show that the general and the particular model are not equivalent by constructing a graph family that […]

Guarded subgraphs and the domination game

Brešar, Boštjan ; Klavžar, Sandi ; Košmrlj, Gasper ; Rall, Doug F..
We introduce the concept of guarded subgraph of a graph, which as a condition lies between convex and 2-isometric subgraphs and is not comparable to isometric subgraphs. Some basic metric properties of guarded subgraphs are obtained, and then this concept is applied to the domination game. In this game two players, Dominator and Staller, alternate choosing vertices of a graph, one at a time, such that each chosen vertex enlarges the set of vertices dominated so far. The aim of Dominator is that the graph is dominated in as few steps as possible, while the aim of Staller is just the opposite. The game domination number is the number of vertices chosen when Dominator starts the game and both players play optimally. The main result of this paper is that the game domination number of a graph is not smaller than the game domination number of any guarded subgraph. Several applications of this result are presented.

Edge stability in secure graph domination

Burger, Anton Pierre ; Villiers, Alewyn Petrus,  ; Vuuren, Jan Harm, .
A subset X of the vertex set of a graph G is a secure dominating set of G if X is a dominating set of G and if, for each vertex u not in X, there is a neighbouring vertex v of u in X such that the swap set (X-v)∪u is again a dominating set of G. The secure domination number of G is the cardinality of a smallest secure dominating set of G. A graph G is p-stable if the largest arbitrary subset of edges whose removal from G does not increase the secure domination number of the resulting graph, has cardinality p. In this paper we study the problem of computing p-stable graphs for all admissible values of p and determine the exact values of p for which members of various infinite classes of graphs are p-stable. We also consider the problem of determining analytically the largest value ωn of p for which a graph of order n can be p-stable. We conjecture that ωn=n-2 and motivate this conjecture.

Connectivity of Fibonacci cubes, Lucas cubes and generalized cubes

Azarija, Jernej ; Klavžar, Sandi ; Lee, Jaehun ; Rho, Yoomi.
If f is a binary word and d a positive integer, then the generalized Fibonacci cube Qd(f) is the graph obtained from the d-cube Qd by removing all the vertices that contain f as a factor, while the generalized Lucas cube Qd(lucas(f)) is the graph obtained from Qd by removing all the vertices that have a circulation containing f as a factor. The Fibonacci cube Γd and the Lucas cube Λd are the graphs Qd(11) and Qd(lucas(11)), respectively. It is proved that the connectivity and the edge-connectivity of Γd as well as of Λd are equal to ⌊ d+2 / 3⌋. Connected generalized Lucas cubes are characterized and generalized Fibonacci cubes are proved to be 2-connected. It is asked whether the connectivity equals minimum degree also for all generalized Fibonacci/Lucas cubes. It was checked by computer that the answer is positive for all f and all d≤9.

Symmetric bipartite graphs and graphs with loops

Cairns, Grant ; Mendan, Stacey.
We show that if the two parts of a finite bipartite graph have the same degree sequence, then there is a bipartite graph, with the same degree sequences, which is symmetric, in that it has an involutive graph automorphism that interchanges its two parts. To prove this, we study the relationship between symmetric bipartite graphs and graphs with loops.

On the 1-2-3-conjecture

Davoodi, Akbar ; Omoomi, Behnaz.
A k-edge-weighting of a graph G is a function w:E(G)→{1,…,k}. An edge-weighting naturally induces a vertex coloring c, where for every vertex v∈V(G), c(v)=∑e∼vw(e). If the induced coloring c is a proper vertex coloring, then w is called a vertex-coloring k-edge-weighting (VC k-EW). Karoński et al. (J. Combin. Theory Ser. B, 91 (2004) 151 13;157) conjectured that every graph admits a VC 3-EW. This conjecture is known as the 1-2-3-conjecture. In this paper, first, we study the vertex-coloring edge-weighting of the Cartesian product of graphs. We prove that if the 1-2-3-conjecture holds for two graphs G and H, then it also holds for G□H. Also we prove that the Cartesian product of connected bipartite graphs admits a VC 2-EW. Moreover, we present several sufficient conditions for a graph to admit a VC 2-EW. Finally, we explore some bipartite graphs which do not admit a VC 2-EW.

An approximability-related parameter on graphs―-properties and applications

Engström, Robert ; Färnqvist, Tommy ; Jonsson, Peter ; Thapper, Johan.
We introduce a binary parameter on optimisation problems called separation. The parameter is used to relate the approximation ratios of different optimisation problems; in other words, we can convert approximability (and non-approximability) result for one problem into (non)-approximability results for other problems. Our main application is the problem (weighted) maximum H-colourable subgraph (Max H-Col), which is a restriction of the general maximum constraint satisfaction problem (Max CSP) to a single, binary, and symmetric relation. Using known approximation ratios for Max k-cut, we obtain general asymptotic approximability results for Max H-Col for an arbitrary graph H. For several classes of graphs, we provide near-optimal results under the unique games conjecture. We also investigate separation as a graph parameter. In this vein, we study its properties on circular complete graphs. Furthermore, we establish a close connection to work by Šámal on cubical colourings of graphs. […]

Ore-degree threshold for the square of a Hamiltonian cycle

DeBiasio, Louis ; Faizullah, Safi ; Khan, Imdadullah.
A classic theorem of Dirac from 1952 states that every graph with minimum degree at least n=2 contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In 1963, P´osa conjectured that every graph with minimum degree at least 2n=3 contains the square of a Hamiltonian cycle. In 1960, Ore relaxed the degree condition in the Dirac’s theorem by proving that every graph with deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ n for every uv =2 E(G) contains a Hamiltonian cycle. Recently, Chˆau proved an Ore-type version of P´osa’s conjecture for graphs on n ≥ n0 vertices using the regularity–blow-up method; consequently the n0 is very large (involving a tower function). Here we present another proof that avoids the use of the regularity lemma. Aside from the fact that our proof holds for much smaller n0, we believe that our method of proof will be of independent interest.

Generalized dynamic storage allocation

Kierstead, H. A. ; Saoub, Karin R..
Dynamic Storage Allocation is a problem concerned with storing items that each have weight and time restrictions. Approximate algorithms have been constructed through online coloring of interval graphs. We present a generalization that uses online coloring of tolerance graphs. We utilize online-with-representation algorithms on tolerance graphs, which are online algorithms in which the corresponding tolerance representation of a vertex is also presented. We find linear bounds for the online-with-representation chromatic number of various classes of tolerance graphs and apply these results to a generalization of Dynamic Storage Allocation, giving us a polynomial time approximation algorithm with linear performance ratio.

Toppling numbers of complete and random graphs

Bonato, Anthony ; Kinnersley, William B. ; Pralat, Pawel.
We study a two-person game played on graphs based on the widely studied chip-firing game. Players Max and Min alternately place chips on the vertices of a graph. When a vertex accumulates as many chips as its degree, it fires, sending one chip to each neighbour; this may in turn cause other vertices to fire. The game ends when vertices continue firing forever. Min seeks to minimize the number of chips played during the game, while Max seeks to maximize it. When both players play optimally, the length of the game is the toppling number of a graph G, and is denoted by t(G). By considering strategies for both players and investigating the evolution of the game with differential equations, we provide asymptotic bounds on the toppling number of the complete graph. In particular, we prove that for sufficiently large n 0.596400 n2 < t(Kn) < 0.637152 n2. Using a fractional version of the game, we couple the toppling numbers of complete graphs and the binomial random graph G(n,p). It is shown […]

Partitioning the vertex set of a bipartite graph into complete bipartite subgraphs

Duginov, Oleg.
Given a graph and a positive integer k, the biclique vertex-partition problem asks whether the vertex set of the graph can be partitioned into at most k bicliques (connected complete bipartite subgraphs). It is known that this problem is NP-complete for bipartite graphs. In this paper we investigate the computational complexity of this problem in special subclasses of bipartite graphs. We prove that the biclique vertex-partition problem is polynomially solvable for bipartite permutation graphs, bipartite distance-hereditary graphs and remains NP-complete for perfect elimination bipartite graphs and bipartite graphs containing no 4-cycles as induced subgraphs.

Packing and covering the balanced complete bipartite multigraph with cycles and stars

Lee, Hung-Chih.
Let Ck denote a cycle of length k and let Sk denote a star with k edges. For multigraphs F, G and H, an (F,G)-decomposition of H is an edge decomposition of H into copies of F and G using at least one of each. For L⊆H and R⊆rH, an (F,G)-packing (resp. (F,G)-covering) of H with leave L (resp. padding R) is an (F,G)-decomposition of H-E(L) (resp. H+E(R)). An (F,G)-packing (resp. (F,G)-covering) of H with the largest (resp. smallest) cardinality is a maximum (F,G)-packing (resp. minimum (F,G)-covering), and its cardinality is referred to as the (F,G)-packing number (resp. (F,G)-covering number) of H. In this paper, we determine the packing number and the covering number of λKn,n with Ck's and Sk's for any λ, n and k, and give the complete solution of the maximum packing and the minimum covering of λKn,n with 4-cycles and 4-stars for any λ and n with all possible leaves and paddings.

Bounding the monomial index and (1,l)-weight choosability of a graph

Seamone, Ben.
Let G = (V,E) be a graph. For each e ∈E(G) and v ∈V(G), let Le and Lv, respectively, be a list of real numbers. Let w be a function on V(G) ∪E(G) such that w(e) ∈Le for each e ∈E(G) and w(v) ∈Lv for each v ∈V(G), and let cw be the vertex colouring obtained by cw(v) = w(v) + ∑ₑ ∋vw(e). A graph is (k,l)-weight choosable if there exists a weighting function w for which cw is proper whenever |Lv| ≥k and |Le| ≥l for every v ∈V(G) and e ∈E(G). A sufficient condition for a graph to be (1,l)-weight choosable was developed by Bartnicki, Grytczuk and Niwczyk (2009), based on the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz, a parameter which they call the monomial index of a graph, and matrix permanents. This paper extends their method to establish the first general upper bound on the monomial index of a graph, and thus to obtain an upper bound on l for which every admissible graph is (1,l)-weight choosable. Let ∂2(G) denote the smallest value s such that every induced subgraph of G has vertices at distance 2 […]

Genus distributions of cubic series-parallel graphs

Gross, Jonathan L. ; Kotrbčík, Michal ; Sun, Timothy.
We derive a quadratic-time algorithm for the genus distribution of any 3-regular, biconnected series-parallel graph, which we extend to any biconnected series-parallel graph of maximum degree at most 3. Since the biconnected components of every graph of treewidth 2 are series-parallel graphs, this yields, by use of bar-amalgamation, a quadratic-time algorithm for every graph of treewidth at most 2 and maximum degree at most 3.

Complexity of conditional colouring with given template

Dukes, Peter J. ; Lowdon, Steve ; Macgillivray, Gary.
We study partitions of the vertex set of a given graph into cells that each induce a subgraph in a given family, and for which edges can have ends in different cells only when those cells correspond to adjacent vertices of a fixed template graph H. For triangle-free templates, a general collection of graph families for which the partitioning problem can be solved in polynomial time is described. For templates with a triangle, the problem is in some cases shown to be NP-complete.

Oriented diameter and rainbow connection number of a graph

Huang, Xiaolong ; Li, Hengzhe ; Li, Xueliang ; Sun, Yuefang.
The oriented diameter of a bridgeless graph G is min diam(H) | H is a strang orientation of G. A path in an edge-colored graph G, where adjacent edges may have the same color, is called rainbow if no two edges of the path are colored the same. The rainbow connection number rc(G) of G is the smallest integer number k for which there exists a k-edge-coloring of G such that every two distinct vertices of G are connected by a rainbow path. In this paper, we obtain upper bounds for the oriented diameter and the rainbow connection number of a graph in terms of rad(G) and η(G), where rad(G) is the radius of G and η(G) is the smallest integer number such that every edge of G is contained in a cycle of length at most η(G). We also obtain constant bounds of the oriented diameter and the rainbow connection number for a (bipartite) graph G in terms of the minimum degree of G.

A four-sweep LBFS recognition algorithm for interval graphs

Li, Peng ; Wu, Yaokun.
In their 2009 paper, Corneil et al. design a linear time interval graph recognition algorithm based on six sweeps of Lexicographic Breadth-First Search (LBFS) and prove its correctness. They believe that their corresponding 5-sweep LBFS interval graph recognition algorithm is also correct. Thanks to the LBFS structure theory established mainly by Corneil et al., we are able to present a 4-sweep LBFS algorithm which determines whether or not the input graph is a unit interval graph or an interval graph. Like the algorithm of Corneil et al., our algorithm does not involve any complicated data structure and can be executed in linear time.

Balancedness of subclasses of circular-arc graphs

Bonomo, Flavia ; Duran, Guillermo ; Safe, Martın D. ; Wagler, Annegret K..
A graph is balanced if its clique-vertex incidence matrix contains no square submatrix of odd order with exactly two ones per row and per column. There is a characterization of balanced graphs by forbidden induced subgraphs, but no characterization by mininal forbidden induced subgraphs is known, not even for the case of circular-arc graphs. A circular-arc graph is the intersection graph of a family of arcs on a circle. In this work, we characterize when a given graph G is balanced in terms of minimal forbidden induced subgraphs, by restricting the analysis to the case where G belongs to certain classes of circular-arc graphs, including Helly circular-arc graphs, claw-free circular-arc graphs, and gem-free circular-arc graphs. In the case of gem-free circular-arc graphs, analogous characterizations are derived for two superclasses of balanced graphs: clique-perfect graphs and coordinated graphs.

The generalized 3-connectivity of Lexicographic product graphs

Li, Xueliang ; Mao, Yaping.
The generalized k-connectivity κk(G) of a graph G, first introduced by Hager, is a natural generalization of the concept of (vertex-)connectivity. Denote by G^H and G&Box;H the lexicographic product and Cartesian product of two graphs G and H, respectively. In this paper, we prove that for any two connected graphs G and H, κ3(G^H)≥ κ3(G)|V(H)|. We also give upper bounds for κ3(G&Box; H) and κ3(G^H). Moreover, all the bounds are sharp.

A variant of Niessen’s problem on degreesequences of graphs

Guo, Jiyun ; Yin, Jianhua.
Let (a1,a2,\textellipsis,an) and (b1,b2,\textellipsis,bn) be two sequences of nonnegative integers satisfying the condition that b1>=b2>=...>=bn, ai<= bi for i=1,2,\textellipsis,n and ai+bi>=ai+1+bi+1 for i=1,2,\textellipsis, n-1. In this paper, we give two different conditions, one of which is sufficient and the other one necessary, for the sequences (a1,a2,\textellipsis,an) and (b1,b2,\textellipsis,bn) such that for every (c1,c2,\textellipsis,cn) with ai<=ci<=bi for i=1,2,\textellipsis,n and ∑&limits;i=1n ci=0 (mod 2), there exists a simple graph G with vertices v1,v2,\textellipsis,vn such that dG(vi)=ci for i=1,2,\textellipsis,n. This is a variant of Niessen\textquoterights problem on degree sequences of graphs (Discrete Math., 191 (1998), 247–253).

On the Meyniel condition for hamiltonicity in bipartite digraphs

Adamus, Janusz ; Adamus, Lech ; Yeo, Anders.
We prove a sharp Meyniel-type criterion for hamiltonicity of a balanced bipartite digraph: For a≥2, a strongly connected balanced bipartite digraph D on 2a vertices is hamiltonian if d(u)+d(v)≥3a whenever uv∉A(D) and vu∉A(D). As a consequence, we obtain a sharp sufficient condition for hamiltonicity in terms of the minimal degree: a strongly connected balanced bipartite digraph D on 2a vertices is hamiltonian if δ(D)≥3a/2.

On the Cartesian product of of an arbitrarily partitionable graph and a traceable graph

Baudon, Olivier ; Bensmail, Julien ; Kalinowski, Rafał ; Marczyk, Antoni ; Przybyło, Jakub ; Wozniak, Mariusz.
A graph G of order n is called arbitrarily partitionable (AP, for short) if, for every sequence τ=(n1,\textellipsis,nk) of positive integers that sum up to n, there exists a partition (V1,\textellipsis,Vk) of the vertex set V(G) such that each set Vi induces a connected subgraph of order ni. A graph G is called AP+1 if, given a vertex u∈V(G) and an index q∈ {1,\textellipsis,k}, such a partition exists with u∈Vq. We consider the Cartesian product of AP graphs. We prove that if G is AP+1 and H is traceable, then the Cartesian product G□ H is AP+1. We also prove that G□H is AP, whenever G and H are AP and the order of one of them is not greater than four.

The Price of Connectivity for Vertex Cover

Camby, Eglantine ; Cardinal, Jean ; Fiorini, Samuel ; Schaudt, Oliver.
The vertex cover number of a graph is the minimum number of vertices that are needed to cover all edges. When those vertices are further required to induce a connected subgraph, the corresponding number is called the connected vertex cover number, and is always greater or equal to the vertex cover number. Connected vertex covers are found in many applications, and the relationship between those two graph invariants is therefore a natural question to investigate. For that purpose, we introduce the \em Price of Connectivity, defined as the ratio between the two vertex cover numbers. We prove that the price of connectivity is at most 2 for arbitrary graphs. We further consider graph classes in which the price of connectivity of every induced subgraph is bounded by some real number t. We obtain forbidden induced subgraph characterizations for every real value t ≤q 3/2. We also investigate critical graphs for this property, namely, graphs whose price of connectivity is strictly greater than […]

The total irregularity of a graph

Abdo, Hosam ; Brandt, Stephan ; Dimitrov, D..
In this note a new measure of irregularity of a graph G is introduced. It is named the total irregularity of a graph and is defined as irr(t)(G) - 1/2 Sigma(u, v is an element of V(G)) vertical bar d(G)(u) - d(G)(v)vertical bar, where d(G)(u) denotes the degree of a vertex u is an element of V(G). All graphs with maximal total irregularity are determined. It is also shown that among all trees of the same order the star has the maximal total irregularity.

Strong parity vertex coloring of plane graphs

Kaiser, Tomas ; Rucky, Ondrej ; Stehlik, Matej ; Škrekovski, Riste.
A strong parity vertex coloring of a 2-connected plane graph is a coloring of the vertices such that every face is incident with zero or an odd number of vertices of each color. We prove that every 2-connected loopless plane graph has a strong parity vertex coloring with 97 colors. Moreover the coloring we construct is proper. This proves a conjecture of Czap and Jendrol' [Discuss. Math. Graph Theory 29 (2009), pp. 521-543.]. We also provide examples showing that eight colors may be necessary (ten when restricted to proper colorings).

List circular backbone colouring

Havet, Frédéric ; King, Andrew.
A natural generalization of graph colouring involves taking colours from a metric space and insisting that the endpoints of an edge receive colours separated by a minimum distance dictated by properties of the edge. In the q-backbone colouring problem, these minimum distances are either q or 1, depending on whether or not the edge is in the backbone. In this paper we consider the list version of this problem, with particular focus on colours in ℤp - this problem is closely related to the problem of circular choosability. We first prove that the list circular q-backbone chromatic number of a graph is bounded by a function of the list chromatic number. We then consider the more general problem in which each edge is assigned an individual distance between its endpoints, and provide bounds using the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz. Through this result and through structural approaches, we achieve good bounds when both the graph and the backbone belong to restricted families of graphs.

Efficient open domination in graph products

Kuziak, Dorota ; Peterin, Iztok ; Yero, Ismael Gonzalez.
A graph G is an efficient open domination graph if there exists a subset D of V(G) for which the open neighborhoods centered in vertices of D form a partition of V(G). We completely describe efficient open domination graphs among lexicographic, strong, and disjunctive products of graphs. For the Cartesian product we give a characterization when one factor is K2.

On Hamiltonian Paths and Cycles in Sufficiently Large Distance Graphs

Löwenstein, Christian ; Rautenbach, Dieter ; Soták, Roman.
For a positive integer n∈ℕ and a set D⊆ ℕ, the distance graph GnD has vertex set { 0,1,\textellipsis,n-1} and two vertices i and j of GnD are adjacent exactly if |j-i|∈D. The condition gcd(D)=1 is necessary for a distance graph GnD being connected. Let D={d1,d2}⊆ℕ be such that d1>d2 and gcd(d1,d2)=1. We prove the following results. If n is sufficiently large in terms of D, then GnD has a Hamiltonian path with endvertices 0 and n-1. If d1d2 is odd, n is even and sufficiently large in terms of D, then GnD has a Hamiltonian cycle. If d1d2 is even and n is sufficiently large in terms of D, then GnD has a Hamiltonian cycle.

On size, radius and minimum degree

Mukwembi, Simon.
Let G be a finite connected graph. We give an asymptotically tight upper bound on the size of G in terms of order, radius and minimum degree. Our result is a strengthening of an old classical theorem of Vizing (1967) if minimum degree is prescribed.

The resolving number of a graph Delia

Garijo, Delia ; González, Antonio ; Márquez, Alberto.
We study a graph parameter related to resolving sets and metric dimension, namely the resolving number, introduced by Chartrand, Poisson and Zhang. First, we establish an important difference between the two parameters: while computing the metric dimension of an arbitrary graph is known to be NP-hard, we show that the resolving number can be computed in polynomial time. We then relate the resolving number to classical graph parameters: diameter, girth, clique number, order and maximum degree. With these relations in hand, we characterize the graphs with resolving number 3 extending other studies that provide characterizations for smaller resolving number.

1-local 33/24-competitive Algorithm for Multicoloring Hexagonal Graphs

Witkowski, Rafal ; Žerovnik, Janez.
In the frequency allocation problem, we are given a cellular telephone network whose geographical coverage area is divided into cells, where phone calls are serviced by assigned frequencies, so that none of the pairs of calls emanating from the same or neighboring cells is assigned the same frequency. The problem is to use the frequencies efficiently, i.e. minimize the span of frequencies used. The frequency allocation problem can be regarded as a multicoloring problem on a weighted hexagonal graph, where each vertex knows its position in the graph. We present a 1-local 33/24-competitive distributed algorithm for multicoloring a hexagonal graph, thereby improving the previous 1-local 7/5-competitive algorithm.

A new characterization and a recognition algorithm of Lucas cubes

Taranenko, Andrej.
Fibonacci and Lucas cubes are induced subgraphs of hypercubes obtained by excluding certain binary strings from the vertex set. They appear as models for interconnection networks, as well as in chemistry. We derive a characterization of Lucas cubes that is based on a peripheral expansion of a unique convex subgraph of an appropriate Fibonacci cube. This serves as the foundation for a recognition algorithm of Lucas cubes that runs in linear time.

Clique cycle transversals in graphs with few P₄'s

Bravo, Raquel ; Klein, Sulamita ; Nogueira, Loana Tito ; Protti, Fábio.
A graph is extended P4-laden if each of its induced subgraphs with at most six vertices that contains more than two induced P4's is 2K2,C4-free. A cycle transversal (or feedback vertex set) of a graph G is a subset T ⊆ V (G) such that T ∩ V (C) 6= ∅ for every cycle C of G; if, in addition, T is a clique, then T is a clique cycle transversal (cct). Finding a cct in a graph G is equivalent to partitioning V (G) into subsets C and F such that C induces a complete subgraph and F an acyclic subgraph. This work considers the problem of characterizing extended P4-laden graphs admitting a cct. We characterize such graphs by means of a finite family of forbidden induced subgraphs, and present a linear-time algorithm to recognize them.

Maximal independent sets in bipartite graphs with at least one cycle

Li, Shuchao ; Zhang, Huihui ; Zhang, Xiaoyan.
A maximal independent set is an independent set that is not a proper subset of any other independent set. Liu [J.Q. Liu, Maximal independent sets of bipartite graphs, J. Graph Theory, 17 (4) (1993) 495-507] determined the largest number of maximal independent sets among all n-vertex bipartite graphs. The corresponding extremal graphs are forests. It is natural and interesting for us to consider this problem on bipartite graphs with cycles. Let \mathscrBₙ (resp. \mathscrBₙ') be the set of all n-vertex bipartite graphs with at least one cycle for even (resp. odd) n. In this paper, the largest number of maximal independent sets of graphs in \mathscrBₙ (resp. \mathscrBₙ') is considered. Among \mathscrBₙ the disconnected graphs with the first-, second-, \ldots, \fracn-22-th largest number of maximal independent sets are characterized, while the connected graphs in \mathscrBₙ having the largest, the second largest number of maximal independent sets are determined. Among \mathscrBₙ' graphs […]

A note on the NP-hardness of two matching problems in induced subgrids

Demange, Marc ; Ekim, Tınaz.
Given a graph, finding the maximal matching of minimum size (MMM) and the induced matching of maximum size (MIM) have been very popular research topics during the last decades. In this paper, we give new complexity results, namely the NP-hardness of MMM and MIM in induced subgrids and we point out some promising research directions. We also sketch the general framework of a unified approach to show the NP-hardness of some problems in subgrids.

Probe interval graphs and probe unit interval graphs on superclasses of cographs

Bonomo, Flavia ; Durán, Guillermo ; Grippo, Luciano N. ; Safe, Martın D..
A graph is probe (unit) interval if its vertices can be partitioned into two sets: a set of probe vertices and a set of nonprobe vertices, so that the set of nonprobe vertices is a stable set and it is possible to obtain a (unit) interval graph by adding edges with both endpoints in the set of nonprobe vertices. Probe (unit) interval graphs form a superclass of (unit) interval graphs. Probe interval graphs were introduced by Zhang for an application concerning the physical mapping of DNA in the human genome project. The main results of this article are minimal forbidden induced subgraphs characterizations of probe interval and probe unit interval graphs within two superclasses of cographs: P4-tidy graphs and tree-cographs. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of graphs class with a companion which allows to describe all the minimally non-(probe G) graphs with disconnected complement for every graph class G with a companion.

Removable edges in near-bricks

Wang, Xiumei ; He, Cheng ; Lin, Yixun.
For a brick apart from a few small graphs, Lovász (1987) proposed a conjecture on the existence of an edge whose deletion results in a graph with only one brick in its tight cut decomposition. Carvalho, Lucchesi, and Murty (2002) confirmed this conjecture by showing the existence of such two edges. This paper generalizes the result obtained by Carvalho et al. to the case of irreducible near-brick, where a graph is irreducible if it contains no induced odd path of length 3 or more. Meanwhile, a lower bound on the number of removable edges of matching-covered bipartite graphs is presented.

Improved bounds on the crossing number of butterfly network

Manuel, Paul D. ; Rajan, Bharati ; Rajasingh, Indra ; Beulah, P. Vasanthi.
We draw the r-dimensional butterfly network with 1 / 44r+O(r2r) crossings which improves the previous estimate given by Cimikowski (1996). We also give a lower bound which matches the upper bound obtained in this paper.

Bipartite powers of k-chordal graphs

Chandran, Sunil,  ; Mathew, Rogers.
Let k be an integer and k ≥3. A graph G is k-chordal if G does not have an induced cycle of length greater than k. From the definition it is clear that 3-chordal graphs are precisely the class of chordal graphs. Duchet proved that, for every positive integer m, if Gm is chordal then so is Gm+2. Brandstädt et al. in [Andreas Brandstädt, Van Bang Le, and Thomas Szymczak. Duchet-type theorems for powers of HHD-free graphs. Discrete Mathematics, 177(1-3):9-16, 1997.] showed that if Gm is k-chordal, then so is Gm+2. Powering a bipartite graph does not preserve its bipartitedness. In order to preserve the bipartitedness of a bipartite graph while powering Chandran et al. introduced the notion of bipartite powering. This notion was introduced to aid their study of boxicity of chordal bipartite graphs. The m-th bipartite power G[m] of a bipartite graph G is the bipartite graph obtained from G by adding edges (u,v) where dG(u,v) is odd and less than or equal to m. Note that G[m] = G[m+1] for […]

The b-chromatic number of powers of cycles

Kohl, Anja.
A b-coloring of a graph G by k colors is a proper vertex coloring such that each color class contains a color-dominating vertex, that is, a vertex having neighbors in all other k-1 color classes. The b-chromatic number χb(G) is the maximum integer k for which G has a b-coloring by k colors. Let Cnr be the rth power of a cycle of order n. In 2003, Effantin and Kheddouci established the b-chromatic number χb(Cnr) for all values of n and r, except for 2r+3≤n≤3r. For the missing cases they presented the lower bound L:= min n-r-1,r+1+⌊ n-r-1 / 3⌋ and conjectured that χb(Cnr)=L. In this paper, we determine the exact value on χb(Cnr) for the missing cases. It turns out that χb(Cnr)>L for 2r+3≤n≤2r+3+r-6 / 4.

All totally symmetric colored graphs

Grech, Mariusz ; Kisielewicz, Andrzej.
In this paper we describe all edge-colored graphs that are fully symmetric with respect to colors and transitive on every set of edges of the same color. They correspond to fully symmetric homogeneous factorizations of complete graphs. Our description completes the work done in our previous paper, where we have shown, in particular, that there are no such graphs with more than 5 colors. Using some recent results, with a help of computer, we settle all the cases that was left open in the previous paper.

A chip-firing variation and a new proof of Cayley's formula

Kayll, Peter Mark ; Perkins, Dave.
We introduce a variation of chip-firing games on connected graphs. These 'burn-off' games incorporate the loss of energy that may occur in the physical processes that classical chip-firing games have been used to model. For a graph G=(V,E), a configuration of 'chips' on its nodes is a mapping C:V→ℕ. We study the configurations that can arise in the course of iterating a burn-off game. After characterizing the 'relaxed legal' configurations for general graphs, we enumerate the 'legal' ones for complete graphs Kn. The number of relaxed legal configurations on Kn coincides with the number tn+1 of spanning trees of Kn+1. Since our algorithmic, bijective proof of this fact does not invoke Cayley's Formula for tn, our main results yield secondarily a new proof of this formula.

Krausz dimension and its generalizations in special graph classes

Glebova, Olga ; Metelsky, Yury ; Skums, Pavel.
A Krausz (k,m)-partition of a graph G is a decomposition of G into cliques, such that any vertex belongs to at most k cliques and any two cliques have at most m vertices in common. The m-Krausz dimension kdimm(G) of the graph G is the minimum number k such that G has a Krausz (k,m)-partition. In particular, 1-Krausz dimension or simply Krausz dimension kdim(G) is a well-known graph-theoretical parameter. In this paper we prove that the problem "kdim(G)≤3" is polynomially solvable for chordal graphs, thus partially solving the open problem of P. Hlineny and J. Kratochvil. We solve another open problem of P. Hlineny and J. Kratochvil by proving that the problem of finding Krausz dimension is NP-hard for split graphs and complements of bipartite graphs. We show that the problem of finding m-Krausz dimension is NP-hard for every m≥1, but the problem "kdimm(G)≤k" is is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by k and m for (∞,1)-polar graphs. Moreover, the class of (∞,1)-polar graphs […]

Further results on maximal nontraceable graphs of smallest size

Burger, Alewyn Petrus ; Singleton, Joy Elizabeth.
Let g(n) denote the minimum number of edges of a maximal nontraceable (MNT) graph of order n. In 2005 Frick and Singleton (Lower bound for the size of maximal nontraceable graphs, Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, 12(1) R32, 2005) proved that g(n) = ⌈3n-22 ⌉ for n ≥54 as well as for n ∈I, where I= 12,13,22,23,30,31,38,39, 40,41,42,43,46,47,48,49,50,51 and they determined g(n) for n ≤9. We determine g(n) for 18 of the remaining 26 values of n, showing that g(n) = ⌈ 3n-22 ⌉ for n ≥54 as well as for n ∈I ∪18,19,20,21,24,25,26,27,28, 29,32,33 and g(n) = ⌈ 3n2 ⌉ for n ∈ 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17. We give results based on ''analytic'' proofs as well as computer searches.

The determining number of Kneser graphs

Cáceres, José ; Garijo, Delia ; González, Antonio ; Márquez, Alberto ; Puertas, Marıa Luz.
A set of vertices S is a determining set of a graph G if every automorphism of G is uniquely determined by its action on S. The determining number of G is the minimum cardinality of a determining set of G. This paper studies the determining number of Kneser graphs. First, we compute the determining number of a wide range of Kneser graphs, concretely Kn:k with n≥k(k+1) / 2+1. In the language of group theory, these computations provide exact values for the base size of the symmetric group Sn acting on the k-subsets of 1,..., n. Then, we establish for which Kneser graphs Kn:k the determining number is equal to n-k, answering a question posed by Boutin. Finally, we find all Kneser graphs with fixed determining number 5, extending the study developed by Boutin for determining number 2, 3 or 4.

Sequence variations of the 1-2-3 conjecture and irregularity strength

Seamone, Ben ; Stevens, Brett.
Karonski, Luczak, and Thomason (2004) conjecture that, for any connected graph G on at least three vertices, there exists an edge weighting from 1, 2, 3 such that adjacent vertices receive different sums of incident edge weights. Bartnicki, Grytczuk, and Niwcyk (2009) make a stronger conjecture, that each edge's weight may be chosen from an arbitrary list of size 3 rather than 1, 2, 3. We examine a variation of these conjectures, where each vertex is coloured with a sequence of edge weights. Such a colouring relies on an ordering of E(G), and so two variations arise - one where we may choose any ordering of E(G) and one where the ordering is fixed. In the former case, we bound the list size required for any graph. In the latter, we obtain a bound on list sizes for graphs with sufficiently large minimum degree. We also extend our methods to a list variation of irregularity strength, where each vertex receives a distinct sequence of edge weights.

Upper k-tuple domination in graphs

Chang, Gerard Jennhwa ; Dorbec, Paul ; Kim, Hye Kyung ; Raspaud, André ; Wang, Haichao ; Zhao, Weiliang.
For a positive integer k, a k-tuple dominating set of a graph G is a subset S of V (G) such that |N [v] ∩ S| ≥ k for every vertex v, where N [v] = {v} ∪ {u ∈ V (G) : uv ∈ E(G)}. The upper k-tuple domination number of G, denoted by Γ×k (G), is the maximum cardinality of a minimal k-tuple dominating set of G. In this paper we present an upper bound on Γ×k (G) for r-regular graphs G with r ≥ k, and characterize extremal graphs achieving the upper bound. We also establish an upper bound on Γ×2 (G) for claw-free r-regular graphs. For the algorithmic aspect, we show that the upper k-tuple domination problem is NP-complete for bipartite graphs and for chordal graphs.

Secure frameproof codes through biclique covers

Hajiabolhassan, Hossein ; Moazami, Farokhlagha.
For a binary code Γ of length v, a v-word w produces by a set of codewords {w1,...,wr}⊆Γ if for all i=1,...,v, we have wi∈{w1i,...,wri} . We call a code r-secure frameproof of size t if |Γ|=t and for any v-word that is produced by two sets C1 and C2 of size at most r then the intersection of these sets is nonempty. A d-biclique cover of size v of a graph G is a collection of v-complete bipartite subgraphs of G such that each edge of G belongs to at least d of these complete bipartite subgraphs. In this paper, we show that for t≥2r, an r-secure frameproof code of size t and length v exists if and only if there exists a 1-biclique cover of size v for the Kneser graph KG(t,r) whose vertices are all r-subsets of a t-element set and two r-subsets are adjacent if their intersection is empty. Then we investigate some connection between the minimum size of d-biclique covers of Kneser graphs and cover-free families, where an (r,w;d) cover-free family is a family of subsets of a finite set such […]

A note on planar Ramsey numbers for a triangle versus wheels

Zhou, Guofei ; Chen, Yaojun ; Miao, Zhengke ; Pirzada, Shariefuddin.
For two given graphs G and H , the planar Ramsey number P R ( G; H ) is the smallest integer n such that every planar graph F on n vertices either contains a copy of G , or its complement contains a copy of H . In this paper, we determine all planar Ramsey numbers for a triangle versus wheels.

On 4-valent Frobenius circulant graphs

Zhou, Sanming.
A 4-valent first-kind Frobenius circulant graph is a connected Cayley graph DLn(1, h) = Cay(Zn, H) on the additive group of integers modulo n, where each prime factor of n is congruent to 1 modulo 4 and H = {[1], [h], −[1], −[h]} with h a solution to the congruence equation x 2 + 1 ≡ 0 (mod n). In [A. Thomson and S. Zhou, Frobenius circulant graphs of valency four, J. Austral. Math. Soc. 85 (2008), 269-282] it was proved that such graphs admit 'perfect ' routing and gossiping schemes in some sense, making them attractive candidates for modelling interconnection networks. In the present paper we prove that DLn(1, h) has the smallest possible broadcasting time, namely its diameter plus two, and we explicitly give an optimal broadcasting in DLn(1, h). Using number theory we prove that it is possible to recursively construct larger 4-valent first-kind Frobenius circulants from smaller ones, and we give a methodology for such a construction. These and existing results suggest that, among […]

Immersion containment and connectivity in color-critical graphs

Abu-Khzam, Faisal N. ; Langston, Michael A..
The relationship between graph coloring and the immersion order is considered. Vertex connectivity, edge connectivity and related issues are explored. It is shown that a t-chromatic graph G contains either an immersed Kt or an immersed t-chromatic subgraph that is both 4-vertex-connected and t-edge-connected. This gives supporting evidence of our conjecture that if G requires at least t colors, then Kt is immersed in G.

Acyclic chromatic index of fully subdivided graphs and Halin graphs

Basavaraju, Manu.
An acyclic edge coloring of a graph is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles. The acyclic chromatic index of a graph is the minimum number k such that there is an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by a'(G). A graph G is called fully subdivided if it is obtained from another graph H by replacing every edge by a path of length at least two. Fully subdivided graphs are known to be acyclically edge colorable using Δ+1 colors since they are properly contained in 2-degenerate graphs which are acyclically edge colorable using Δ+1 colors. Muthu, Narayanan and Subramanian gave a simple direct proof of this fact for the fully subdivided graphs. Fiamcik has shown that if we subdivide every edge in a cubic graph with at most two exceptions to get a graph G, then a'(G)=3. In this paper we generalise the bound to Δ for all fully subdivided graphs improving the result of Muthu et al. In particular, we prove that if G is a fully subdivided graph and Δ(G) […]

Random Cayley digraphs of diameter 2 and given degree

Lladser, Manuel E. ; Potočnik, Primož ; Širáň, Jozef ; Wilson, Mark C..
We consider random Cayley digraphs of order n with uniformly distributed generating sets of size k. Specifically, we are interested in the asymptotics of the probability that such a Cayley digraph has diameter two as n -> infinity and k = f(n), focusing on the functions f(n) = left perpendicularn(delta)right perpendicular and f(n) = left perpendicularcnright perpendicular. In both instances we show that this probability converges to 1 as n -> infinity for arbitrary fixed delta is an element of (1/2, 1) and c is an element of (0, 1/2), respectively, with a much larger convergence rate in the second case and with sharper results for Abelian groups.

Graphs with many vertex-disjoint cycles

Rautenbach, Dieter ; Regen, Friedrich.
We study graphs G in which the maximum number of vertex-disjoint cycles nu(G) is close to the cyclomatic number mu(G), which is a natural upper bound for nu(G). Our main result is the existence of a finite set P(k) of graphs for all k is an element of N-0 such that every 2-connected graph G with mu(G)-nu(G) = k arises by applying a simple extension rule to a graph in P(k). As an algorithmic consequence we describe algorithms calculating minmu(G)-nu(G), k + 1 in linear time for fixed k.

On paths, trails and closed trails in edge-colored graphs

Gourvès, Laurent ; Lyra, Adria ; Martinhon, Carlos A. ; Monnot, Jérôme.
In this paper we deal from an algorithmic perspective with different questions regarding properly edge-colored (or PEC) paths, trails and closed trails. Given a c-edge-colored graph G(c), we show how to polynomially determine, if any, a PEC closed trail subgraph whose number of visits at each vertex is specified before hand. As a consequence, we solve a number of interesting related problems. For instance, given subset S of vertices in G(c), we show how to maximize in polynomial time the number of S-restricted vertex (resp., edge) disjoint PEC paths (resp., trails) in G(c) with endpoints in S. Further, if G(c) contains no PEC closed trails, we show that the problem of finding a PEC s-t trail visiting a given subset of vertices can be solved in polynomial time and prove that it becomes NP-complete if we are restricted to graphs with no PEC cycles. We also deal with graphs G(c) containing no (almost) PEC cycles or closed trails through s or t. We prove that finding 2 PEC s-t paths […]

The competition number of a generalized line graph is at most two

Park, Boram ; Sano, Yoshio.
In 1982, Opsut showed that the competition number of a line graph is at most two and gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the competition number of a line graph being one. In this paper, we generalize this result to the competition numbers of generalized line graphs, that is, we show that the competition number of a generalized line graph is at most two, and give necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for the competition number of a generalized line graph being one.

On bipartite powers of bigraphs

Okamoto, Yoshio ; Otachi, Yota ; Uehara, Ryuhei.
The notion of graph powers is a well-studied topic in graph theory and its applications. In this paper, we investigate a bipartite analogue of graph powers, which we call bipartite powers of bigraphs. We show that the classes of bipartite permutation graphs and interval bigraphs are closed under taking bipartite power. We also show that the problem of recognizing bipartite powers is NP-complete in general.

alpha-Labelings and the Structure of Trees with Nonzero alpha-Deficit

Brinkmann, Gunnar ; Crevals, Simon ; Melot, Hadrien ; Rylands, Leanne ; Steffen, Eckhard.
We present theoretical and computational results on alpha-labelings of trees. The theorems proved in this paper were inspired by the results of a computer investigation of alpha-labelings of all trees with up to 26 vertices, all trees with maximum degree 3 and up to 36 vertices, all trees with maximum degree 4 and up to 32 vertices and all trees with maximum degree 5 and up to 31 vertices. We generalise a criterion for trees to have nonzero alpha-deficit, and prove an unexpected result on the alpha-deficit of trees with a vertex of large degree compared to the order of the tree.

The generalized 3-connectivity of Cartesian product graphs

Li, Hengzhe ; Li, Xueliang ; Sun, Yuefang.
The generalized connectivity of a graph, which was introduced by Chartrand et al. in 1984, is a generalization of the concept of vertex connectivity. Let S be a nonempty set of vertices of G, a collection \T-1, T (2), ... , T-r\ of trees in G is said to be internally disjoint trees connecting S if E(T-i) boolean AND E(T-j) - empty set and V (T-i) boolean AND V(T-j) = S for any pair of distinct integers i, j, where 1 <= i, j <= r. For an integer k with 2 <= k <= n, the k-connectivity kappa(k) (G) of G is the greatest positive integer r for which G contains at least r internally disjoint trees connecting S for any set S of k vertices of G. Obviously, kappa(2)(G) = kappa(G) is the connectivity of G. Sabidussi's Theorem showed that kappa(G square H) >= kappa(G) + kappa(H) for any two connected graphs G and H. In this paper, we prove that for any two connected graphs G and H with kappa(3) (G) >= kappa(3) (H), if kappa(G) > kappa(3) (G), then kappa(3) (G square H) >= kappa(3) (G) + kappa(3) […]

Nordhaus-Gaddum Type Results for Total Domination

Henning, Michael,  ; Joubert, Ernst ; Southey, Justin.
A Nordhaus-Gaddum-type result is a (tight) lower or upper bound on the sum or product of a parameter of a graph and its complement. In this paper we study Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results for total domination. We examine the sum and product of γt(G1) and γt(G2) where G1 ⊕G2 = K(s,s), and γt is the total domination number. We show that the maximum value of the sum of the total domination numbers of G1 and G2 is 2s+4, with equality if and only if G1 = sK2 or G2 = sK2, while the maximum value of the product of the total domination numbers of G1 and G2 is max{8s,⌊(s+6)2/4 ⌋}.

On the number of factors in codings of three interval exchange

Ambrož, Petr ; Frid, Anna ; Masáková, Zuzana ; Pelantová, Edita.
We consider exchange of three intervals with permutation (3, 2, 1). The aim of this paper is to count the cardinality of the set 3iet (N) of all words of length N which appear as factors in infinite words coding such transformations. We use the strong relation of 3iet words and words coding exchange of two intervals, i.e., Sturmian words. The known asymptotic formula #2iet(N)/N-3 similar to 1/pi(2) for the number of Sturmian factors allows us to find bounds 1/3 pi(2) +o(1) \textless= #3iet(N)N-4 \textless= 2 pi(2) + o(1)