This section seeks high quality research articles in all aspects of combinatorics, including enumerative combinatorics, probabilistic combinatorics, extremal combinatorics, algebraic combinatorics, additive combinatorics, bijections and mappings to enumeration, structural and enumerative properties of combinatorial objects, ordered sets, posets, quasi-orderings, combinatorial structures with geometric properties, combinatorial geometry, combinatorial objects in statistical physics, positional games, power series and generating functions.

Editors: Olivier Bernardi ; Sergi Elizalde ; Stefan Felsner ; Mihyun Kang ; Kolja Knauer ; Matjaz Konvalinka ; Christian Krattenthaler ; Daniel Krob ; Piotr Micek ; Milos Stojakovic

We say that a finite set of red and blue points in the plane in general position can be $K_{1,3}$-covered if the set can be partitioned into subsets of size $4$, with $3$ points of one color and $1$ point of the other color, in such a way that, if at each subset the fourth point is connected by straight-line segments to the same-colored points, then the resulting set of all segments has no crossings. We consider the following problem: Given a set $R$ of $r$ red points and a set $B$ of $b$ blue points in the plane in general position, how many points of $R\cup B$ can be $K_{1,3}$-covered? and we prove the following results: (1) If $r=3g+h$ and $b=3h+g$, for some non-negative integers $g$ and $h$, then there are point sets $R\cup B$, like $\{1,3\}$-equitable sets (i.e., $r=3b$ or $b=3r$) and linearly separable sets, that can be $K_{1,3}$-covered. (2) If $r=3g+h$, $b=3h+g$ and the points in $R\cup B$ are in convex position, then at least $r+b-4$ points can be $K_{1,3}$-covered, and […]

Rectangulations are partitions of a square into axis-aligned rectangles. A number of results provide bijections between combinatorial equivalence classes of rectangulations and families of pattern-avoiding permutations. Other results deal with local changes involving a single edge of a rectangulation, referred to as flips, edge rotations, or edge pivoting. Such operations induce a graph on equivalence classes of rectangulations, related to so-called flip graphs on triangulations and other families of geometric partitions. In this note, we consider a family of flip operations on the equivalence classes of diagonal rectangulations, and their interpretation as transpositions in the associated Baxter permutations, avoiding the vincular patterns { 3{14}2, 2{41}3 }. This complements results from Law and Reading (JCTA, 2012) and provides a complete characterization of flip operations on diagonal rectangulations, in both geometric and combinatorial terms.

We present two families of Wilf-equivalences for consecutive and quasi-consecutive vincular patterns. These give new proofs of the classification of consecutive patterns of length $4$ and $5$. We then prove additional equivalences to explicitly classify all quasi-consecutive patterns of length $5$ into 26 Wilf-equivalence classes.

By means of inversion techniques and several known hypergeometric series identities, summation formulas for Fox-Wright function are explored. They give some new hypergeometric series identities when the parameters are specified.

This is the first of three papers that develop structures which are counted by a "parabolic" generalization of Catalan numbers. Fix a subset R of {1,..,n-1}. Consider the ordered partitions of {1,..,n} whose block sizes are determined by R. These are the "inverses" of (parabolic) multipermutations whose multiplicities are determined by R. The standard forms of the ordered partitions are refered to as "R-permutations". The notion of 312-avoidance is extended from permutations to R-permutations. Let lambda be a partition of N such that the set of column lengths in its shape is R or R union {n}. Fix an R-permutation pi. The type A Demazure character (key polynomial) in x_1, .., x_n that is indexed by lambda and pi can be described as the sum of the weight monomials for some of the semistandard Young tableau of shape lambda that are used to describe the Schur function indexed by lambda. Descriptions of these "Demazure" tableaux developed by the authors in earlier papers are used to prove […]

We show that the permutation complexity of the image of a Sturmian word by a binary marked morphism is $n+k$ for some constant $k$ and all lengths $n$ sufficiently large.

We generalize the notion of the toggle group, as defined in [P. Cameron-D. Fon-der-Flaass '95] and further explored in [J. Striker-N. Williams '12], from the set of order ideals of a poset to any family of subsets of a finite set. We prove structure theorems for certain finite generalized toggle groups, similar to the theorem of Cameron and Fon-der-Flaass in the case of order ideals. We apply these theorems and find other results on generalized toggle groups in the following settings: chains, antichains, and interval-closed sets of a poset; independent sets, vertex covers, acyclic subgraphs, and spanning subgraphs of a graph; matroids and convex geometries. We generalize rowmotion, an action studied on order ideals in [P. Cameron-D. Fon-der-Flaass '95] and [J. Striker-N. Williams '12], to a map we call cover-closure on closed sets of a closure operator. We show that cover-closure is bijective if and only if the set of closed sets is isomorphic to the set of order ideals of a poset, […]

Grebinski and Kucherov (1998) and Alon et al. (2004-2005) study the problem of learning a hidden graph for some especial cases, such as hamiltonian cycle, cliques, stars, and matchings. This problem is motivated by problems in chemical reactions, molecular biology and genome sequencing. In this paper, we present a generalization of this problem. Precisely, we consider a graph G and a subgraph H of G and we assume that G contains exactly one defective subgraph isomorphic to H. The goal is to find the defective subgraph by testing whether an induced subgraph contains an edge of the defective subgraph, with the minimum number of tests. We present an upper bound for the number of tests to find the defective subgraph by using the symmetric and high probability variation of Lovász Local Lemma.

Fix an integer partition lambda that has no more than n parts. Let beta be a weakly increasing n-tuple with entries from {1,..,n}. The flagged Schur function indexed by lambda and beta is a polynomial generating function in x_1, .., x_n for certain semistandard tableaux of shape lambda. Let pi be an n-permutation. The type A Demazure character (key polynomial, Demazure polynomial) indexed by lambda and pi is another such polynomial generating function. Reiner and Shimozono and then Postnikov and Stanley studied coincidences between these two families of polynomials. Here their results are sharpened by the specification of unique representatives for the equivalence classes of indexes for both families of polynomials, extended by the consideration of more general beta, and deepened by proving that the polynomial coincidences also hold at the level of the underlying tableau sets. Let R be the set of lengths of columns in the shape of lambda that are less than n. Ordered set partitions of […]

A binary triangle of size $n$ is a triangle of zeroes and ones, with $n$ rows, built with the same local rule as the standard Pascal triangle modulo $2$. A binary triangle is said to be balanced if the absolute difference between the numbers of zeroes and ones that constitute this triangle is at most $1$. In this paper, the existence of balanced binary triangles of size $n$, for all positive integers $n$, is shown. This is achieved by considering periodic balanced binary triangles, that are balanced binary triangles where each row, column or diagonal is a periodic sequence.

Let $[K_n,f,\pi]$ be the (global) SDS map of a sequential dynamical system (SDS) defined over the complete graph $K_n$ using the update order $\pi\in S_n$ in which all vertex functions are equal to the same function $f\colon\mathbb F_2^n\to\mathbb F_2^n$. Let $\eta_n$ denote the maximum number of periodic orbits of period $2$ that an SDS map of the form $[K_n,f,\pi]$ can have. We show that $\eta_n$ is equal to the maximum number of codewords in a binary code of length $n-1$ with minimum distance at least $3$. This result is significant because it represents the first interpretation of this fascinating coding-theoretic sequence other than its original definition.

Tree-like tableaux are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams originally introduced by Aval et al., which are in simple bijections with permutation tableaux coming from Postnikov's study of totally nonnegative Grassmanian and alternative tableaux introduced by Viennot. In this paper, we confirm two conjectures of Gao et al. on the refined enumeration of non-occupied corners in tree-like tableaux and symmetric tree-like tableaux via intermediate structures of alternative tableaux, linked partitions, type $B$ alternative tableaux and type $B$ linked partitions.

The PASEP (Partially Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process) is a probabilistic model of moving particles, which is of great interest in combinatorics, since it appeared that its partition function counts some tableaux. These tableaux have several variants such as permutations tableaux, alternative tableaux, tree- like tableaux, Dyck tableaux, etc. We introduce in this context certain excursions in Young's lattice, that we call stammering tableaux (by analogy with oscillating tableaux, vacillating tableaux, hesitating tableaux). Some natural bijections make a link with rook placements in a double staircase, chains of Dyck paths obtained by successive addition of ribbons, Laguerre histories, Dyck tableaux, etc.

The study of patterns in permutations associated with forests of binary shrubs was initiated by D. Bevan et al.. In this paper, we study five different types of rise statistics that can be associated with such permutations and find the generating functions for the distribution of such rise statistics.

Using $q$-series identities and series rearrangement, we establish several extensions of $q$-Watson formulas with two extra integer parameters. Then they and Sears' transformation formula are utilized to derive some generalizations of $q$-Dixon formulas and $q$-Whipple formulas with two extra integer parameters. As special cases of these results, many interesting evaluations of series of $q$-Watson,$q$-Dixon, and $q$-Whipple type are displayed.

A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\Diamond\notin A$, which can be substituted by any symbol from $A$. For example, $u=0\Diamond 011100$ is a linear partial word for the binary alphabet $A=\{0,1\}$ and for $n=3$ (e.g., the first three letters of $u$ yield the subwords $000$ and $010$). We present results on the existence and non-existence of linear and cyclic universal partial words in different situations (depending on the number of $\Diamond$s and their positions), including various explicit constructions. We also provide numerous examples of universal […]

An S-restricted composition of a positive integer n is an ordered partition of n where each summand is drawn from a given subset S of positive integers. There are various problems regarding such compositions which have received attention in recent years. This paper is an attempt at finding a closed- form formula for the number of S-restricted compositions of n. To do so, we reduce the problem to finding solutions to corresponding so-called interpreters which are linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients. Then, we reduce interpreters to Diophantine equations. Such equations are not in general solvable. Thus, we restrict our attention to those S-restricted composition problems whose interpreters have a small number of coefficients, thereby leading to solvable Diophantine equations. The formalism developed is then used to study the integer sequences related to some well-known cases of the S-restricted composition problem.

Chordal graph shelling antimatroids have received little attention with regard to their combinatorial properties and related optimization problems, as compared to the case of poset shelling antimatroids. Here we consider a special case of these antimatroids, namely the split graph shelling antimatroids. We show that the feasible sets of such an antimatroid relate to some poset shelling antimatroids constructed from the graph. We discuss a few applications, obtaining in particular a simple polynomial-time algorithm to find a maximum weight feasible set. We also provide a simple description of the circuits and the free sets.

This is the second of two papers in which we determine all 242 Wilf classes of triples of 4-letter patterns by showing that there are 32 non-singleton Wilf classes. There are 317 symmetry classes of triples of 4-letter patterns and after computer calculation of initial terms, the problem reduces to showing that counting sequences that appear to be the same (agree in the first 16 terms) are in fact identical. This amounts to counting avoiders for 107 representative triples. The insertion encoding algorithm (INSENC) applies to many of them and some others have been previously counted. There remain 36 triples and the first paper dealt with the first 18. In this paper, we find the generating function for the last 18 triples which turns out to be algebraic in each case. Our methods are both combinatorial and analytic, including decomposi-tions by left-right maxima and by initial letters. Sometimes this leads to an algebraic equation for the generating function, sometimes to a functional […]

This is the first of two papers in which we determine all 242 Wilf classes of triples of 4-letter patterns by showing that there are 32 non-singleton Wilf classes. There are 317 symmetry classes of triples of 4-letter patterns and after computer calculation of initial terms, the problem reduces to showing that counting sequences that appear to be the same (agree in the first 16 terms) are in fact identical. This amounts to counting avoiders for 107 representative triples. The insertion encoding algorithm (INSENC) applies to many of them and some others have been previously counted. Thus there remain 36 triples. In this paper, we find the generating function for the first 18 of these triples and in a second paper, we treat the other 18. The generating function turns out to be algebraic in each case. Our methods are both combinatorial and analytic, including decompositions by left-right maxima and by initial letters. Sometimes this leads to an algebraic equation for the generating […]

Recent research on the combinatorics of finite sets has explored the structure of symmetric difference-closed sets, and recent research in combinatorial group theory has concerned the enumeration of commuting involutions in $S_{n}$ and $A_{n}$. In this article, we consider an interesting combination of these two subjects, by introducing classes of symmetric difference-closed sets of elements which correspond in a natural way to commuting involutions in $S_{n}$ and $A_{n}$. We consider the natural combinatorial problem of enumerating symmetric difference-closed sets consisting of subsets of sets consisting of pairwise disjoint $2$-subsets of $[n]$, and the problem of enumerating symmetric difference-closed sets consisting of elements which correspond to commuting involutions in $A_{n}$. We prove explicit combinatorial formulas for symmetric difference-closed sets of these forms, and we prove a number of conjectured properties related to such sets which had previously been discovered […]

Given a set $Y$ of decreasing plane trees and a permutation $\pi$, how many trees in $Y$ have $\pi$ as their postorder? Using combinatorial and geometric constructions, we provide a method for answering this question for certain sets $Y$ and all permutations $\pi$. We then provide applications of our results to the study of the deterministic stack-sorting algorithm.

In this paper, we confirm conjectures of Laborde-Zubieta on the enumeration of corners in tree-like tableaux and in symmetric tree-like tableaux. In the process, we also enumerate corners in (type $B$) permutation tableaux and (symmetric) alternative tableaux. The proof is based on Corteel and Nadeau's bijection between permutation tableaux and permutations. It allows us to interpret the number of corners as a statistic over permutations that is easier to count. The type $B$ case uses the bijection of Corteel and Kim between type $B$ permutation tableaux and signed permutations. Moreover, we give a bijection between corners and runs of size 1 in permutations, which gives an alternative proof of the enumeration of corners. Finally, we introduce conjectural polynomial analogues of these enumerations, and explain the implications on the PASEP.

We study two different objects attached to an arbitrary quadrangulation of a regular polygon. The first one is a poset, closely related to the Stokes polytopes introduced by Baryshnikov. The second one is a set of some paths configurations inside the quadrangulation, satisfying some specific constraints. These objects provide a generalisation of the existing combinatorics of cluster algebras and nonnesting partitions of type A.

A narrow connection between infinite binary words rich in classical palindromes and infinite binary words rich simultaneously in palindromes and pseudopalindromes (the so-called $H$-rich words) is demonstrated. The correspondence between rich and $H$-rich words is based on the operation $S$ acting over words over the alphabet $\{0,1\}$ and defined by $S(u_0u_1u_2\ldots) = v_1v_2v_3\ldots$, where $v_i= u_{i-1} + u_i \mod 2$. The operation $S$ enables us to construct a new class of rich words and a new class of $H$-rich words. Finally, the operation $S$ is considered on the multiliteral alphabet $\mathbb{Z}_m$ as well and applied to the generalized Thue--Morse words. As a byproduct, new binary rich and $H$-rich words are obtained by application of $S$ on the generalized Thue--Morse words over the alphabet $\mathbb{Z}_4$.

We prove geometric Ramsey-type statements on collections of lines in 3-space. These statements give guarantees on the size of a clique or an independent set in (hyper)graphs induced by incidence relations between lines, points, and reguli in 3-space. Among other things, we prove that: (1) The intersection graph of n lines in R^3 has a clique or independent set of size Omega(n^{1/3}). (2) Every set of n lines in R^3 has a subset of n^{1/2} lines that are all stabbed by one line, or a subset of Omega((n/log n)^{1/5}) such that no 6-subset is stabbed by one line. (3) Every set of n lines in general position in R^3 has a subset of Omega(n^{2/3}) lines that all lie on a regulus, or a subset of Omega(n^{1/3}) lines such that no 4-subset is contained in a regulus. The proofs of these statements all follow from geometric incidence bounds -- such as the Guth-Katz bound on point-line incidences in R^3 -- combined with Turán-type results on independent sets in sparse graphs and […]

Epigroups are semigroups equipped with an additional unary operation called pseudoinversion. Each finite semigroup can be considered as an epigroup. We prove the following theorem announced by Zhil'tsov in 2000: the equational theory of the class of all epigroups coincides with the equational theory of the class of all finite epigroups and is decidable. We show that the theory is not finitely based but provide a transparent infinite basis for it.

A composition $\pi = \pi_1 \pi_2 \cdots \pi_m$ of a positive integer $n$ is an ordered collection of one or more positive integers whose sum is $n$. The number of summands, namely $m$, is called the number of parts of $\pi$. Using linear algebra, we determine formulas for generating functions that count compositions of $n$ with $m$ parts, according to the number of occurrences of the subword pattern $\tau$, and according to the sum, over all occurrences of $\tau$, of the first integers in their respective occurrences, where $\tau$ is any pattern of length three with exactly 2 distinct letters.

We find surprisingly simple formulas for the limiting probability that the rank of a randomly selected vertex in a randomly selected phylogenetic tree or generalized phylogenetic tree is a given integer.

We study the configuration space of rectangulations and convex subdivisions of $n$ points in the plane. It is shown that a sequence of $O(n\log n)$ elementary flip and rotate operations can transform any rectangulation to any other rectangulation on the same set of $n$ points. This bound is the best possible for some point sets, while $\Theta(n)$ operations are sufficient and necessary for others. Some of our bounds generalize to convex subdivisions of $n$ points in the plane.

Word $W$ is an instance of word $V$ provided there is a homomorphism $\phi$ mapping letters to nonempty words so that $\phi(V) = W$. For example, taking $\phi$ such that $\phi(c)=fr$, $\phi(o)=e$ and $\phi(l)=zer$, we see that "freezer" is an instance of "cool". Let $\mathbb{I}_n(V,[q])$ be the probability that a random length $n$ word on the alphabet $[q] = \{1,2,\cdots q\}$ is an instance of $V$. Having previously shown that $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \mathbb{I}_n(V,[q])$ exists, we now calculate this limit for two Zimin words, $Z_2 = aba$ and $Z_3 = abacaba$.

We endow the set of isomorphism classes of matroids with a new Hopf algebra structure, in which the coproduct is implemented via the combinatorial operations of restriction and deletion. We also initiate the investigation of dendriform coalgebra structures on matroids and introduce a monomial invariant which satisfy a convolution identity with respect to restriction and deletion.

We explore the classical pattern avoidance question in the case of irreducible permutations,i.e., those in which there is no index $i$ such that $\sigma (i+1) - \sigma (i)=1$. The problem is addressed completely in the case of avoiding one or two patterns of length three, and several well known sequences are encountered in the process, such as Catalan, Motzkin, Fibonacci, Tribonacci, Padovan and Binary numbers. Also, we present constructive bijections between the set of Motzkin paths of length $n-1$ and the sets of irreducible permutations of length $n$ (respectively fixed point free irreducible involutions of length $2n$) avoiding a pattern $\alpha$ for $\alpha \in \{132,213,321\}$. This induces two new bijections between the set of Dyck paths and some restricted sets of permutations.

A permutation $σ$ contains the permutation $τ$ if there is a subsequence of $σ$ order isomorphic to $τ$. A permutation $σ$ is $τ$-avoidingif it does not contain the permutation $τ$. For any $n$, thepopularityof a permutation $τ$, denoted $A$_{$n$}($τ$), is the number of copies of $τ$ contained in the set of all 132-avoiding permutations of length $n$. Rudolph conjectures that for permutations $τ$ and $μ$ of the same length, $A$_{$n$}($τ$) ≤ $A$_{$n$}($μ$) for all $n$ if and only if the spine structure of $τ$ is less than or equal to the spine structure of $μ$ in refinement order. We prove one direction of this conjecture, by showing that if the spine structure of $τ$ is less than or equal to the spine structure of $μ$, then $A$_{$n$}($τ$) ≤ $A$_{$n$}($μ$) for all $n$. We disprove the opposite direction by giving a counterexample, and hence disprove […]

The vertex corona of a vertex of some tiling is the vertex together with the adjacent tiles. A tiling where all vertex coronae are congruent is called monocoronal. We provide a classification of monocoronal tilings in the Euclidean plane and derive a list of all possible symmetry groups of monocoronal tilings. In particular, any monocoronal tiling with respect to direct congruence is crystallographic, whereas any monocoronal tiling with respect to congruence (reflections allowed) is either crystallographic or it has a one-dimensional translation group. Furthermore, bounds on the number of the dimensions of the translation group of monocoronal tilings in higher dimensional Euclidean space are obtained.

Vincular or dashed patterns resemble classical patterns except that some of the letters within an occurrence are required to be adjacent. We prove several infinite families of Wilf-equivalences for $k$-ary words involving vincular patterns containing a single dash, which explain the majority of the equivalences witnessed for such patterns of length four. When combined with previous results, numerical evidence, and some arguments in specific cases, we obtain the complete Wilf-classification for all vincular patterns of length four containing a single dash. In some cases, our proof shows further that the equivalence holds for multiset permutations since it is seen to respect the number of occurrences of each letter within a word. Some related enumerative results are provided for patterns $τ$ of length four, among them generating function formulas for the number of members of [$k$]^{$n$}avoiding any $τ$ of the form 11$a-b$.

An $r$-coloring of a knot diagram is an assignment of integers modulo $r$ to the arcs of the diagram such that at each crossing, twice the the number assigned to the over-arc equals the sum of the numbers assigned to the under-arcs, modulo $r$. The number of $r$-colorings is a knot invariant i.e., for each knot, it does not depend on the diagram we are using for counting them. In this article we calculate the number of $r$-colorings for the so-called Turk's Head Knots, for each modulus $r$. Furthermore, it is also known that whenever a knot admits an $r$-coloring using more than one color then all other diagrams of the same knot admit such $r$-colorings (called non-trivial $r$-colorings). This leads to the question of what is the minimum number of colors it takes to assemble such an $r$-coloring for the knot at issue. In this article we also estimate and sometimes calculate exactly what is the minimum numbers of colors for each of the Turk's Head Knots, for each relevant modulus $r$.

In this paper we study those generic intervals in the Bruhat order of the symmetric group that are isomorphic to the principal order ideal of a permutation w, and consider when the minimum and maximum elements of those intervals are related by a certain property of their reduced words. We show that the property does not hold when w is a decomposable permutation, and that the property always holds when w is the longest permutation.

In this paper, we study (1 : b) Avoider-Enforcer games played on the edge set of the complete graph on n vertices. For every constant k≥3 we analyse the k-star game, where Avoider tries to avoid claiming k edges incident to the same vertex. We consider both versions of Avoider-Enforcer games — the strict and the monotone — and for each provide explicit winning strategies for both players. We determine the order of magnitude of the threshold biases fmonF, f-F and f+F, where F is the hypergraph of the game.

We provide a rather general asymptotic scheme for combinatorial parameters that asymptotically follow a discrete double-exponential distribution. It is based on analysing generating functions Gh(z) whose dominant singularities converge to a certain value at an exponential rate. This behaviour is typically found by means of a bootstrapping approach. Our scheme is illustrated by a number of classical and new examples, such as the longest run in words or compositions, patterns in Dyck and Motzkin paths, or the maximum degree in planted plane trees.

We describe new classification results in the theory of generalized quadrangles (= Tits-buildings of rank 2 and type B2), more precisely in the (large) subtheory of skew translation generalized quadrangles (``STGQs''). Some of these involve, and solve, long-standing open problems.

We prove that the dual graph of any arrangement of n lines in general position always contains a path of length at least n2/4. Further, we show that in every arrangement of n red and blue lines — in general position and not all of the same color — there is a simple path through at least n cells where red and blue lines are crossed alternatingly.

Given a set S of n points in the plane, a radial ordering of S with respect to a point p (not in S) is a clockwise circular ordering of the elements in S by angle around p. If S is two-colored, a colored radial ordering is a radial ordering of S in which only the colors of the points are considered. In this paper, we obtain bounds on the number of distinct non-colored and colored radial orderings of S. We assume a strong general position on S, not three points are collinear and not three lines 14;each passing through a pair of points in S 14;intersect in a point of ℝ2 S. In the colored case, S is a set of 2n points partitioned into n red and n blue points, and n is even. We prove that: the number of distinct radial orderings of S is at most O(n4) and at least Ω(n3); the number of colored radial orderings of S is at most O(n4) and at least Ω(n); there exist sets of points with Θ(n4) colored radial orderings and sets of points with only O(n2) colored radial orderings.

We prove that any irreducible triangulation on n vertices has O(4.6807n) regular edge labelings and that there are irreducible triangulations on n vertices with Ω(3.0426n) regular edge labelings. Our upper bound relies on a novel application of Shearer's entropy lemma. As an example of the wider applicability of this technique, we also improve the upper bound on the number of 2-orientations of a quadrangulation to O(1.87n).

In a biased weak (a,b) polyform achievement game, the maker and the breaker alternately mark a,b previously unmarked cells on an infinite board, respectively. The maker's goal is to mark a set of cells congruent to a polyform. The breaker tries to prevent the maker from achieving this goal. A winning maker strategy for the (a,b) game can be built from winning strategies for games involving fewer marks for the maker and the breaker. A new type of breaker strategy called the priority strategy is introduced. The winners are determined for all (a,b) pairs for polyiamonds and polyominoes up to size four.

We study properties of infinite permutations generated by fixed points of some uniform binary morphisms, and find the formula for their complexity.

A non-commutative, planar, Hopf algebra of planar rooted trees was defined independently by one of the authors in Foissy (2002) and by R. Holtkamp in Holtkamp (2003). In this paper we propose such a non-commutative Hopf algebra for graphs. In order to define a non-commutative product we use a quantum field theoretical (QFT) idea, namely the one of introducing discrete scales on each edge of the graph (which, within the QFT framework, corresponds to energy scales of the associated propagators). Finally, we analyze the associated quadri-coalgebra and codendrifrom structures.

A composition is a sequence of positive integers, called parts, having a fixed sum. By an m-congruence succession, we will mean a pair of adjacent parts x and y within a composition such that x=y(modm). Here, we consider the problem of counting the compositions of size n according to the number of m-congruence successions, extending recent results concerning successions on subsets and permutations. A general formula is obtained, which reduces in the limiting case to the known generating function formula for the number of Carlitz compositions. Special attention is paid to the case m=2, where further enumerative results may be obtained by means of combinatorial arguments. Finally, an asymptotic estimate is provided for the number of compositions of size n having no m-congruence successions.

We consider compositions of n, i.e., sequences of positive integers (or parts) (σi)i=1k where σ1+σ2+...+σk=n. We define a maximum to be any part which is not less than any other part. The variable of interest is the size of the descent immediately following the first and the last maximum. Using generating functions and Mellin transforms, we obtain asymptotic expressions for the average size of these descents. Finally, we show with the use of a simple bijection between the compositions of n for n>1, that on average the descent after the last maximum is greater than the descent after the first.

Let $G=(V,E)$ be an undirected graph without loops and multiple edges. A subset $C\subseteq V$ is called \emph{identifying} if for every vertex $x\in V$ the intersection of $C$ and the closed neighbourhood of $x$ is nonempty, and these intersections are different for different vertices $x$. Let $k$ be a positive integer. We will consider graphs where \emph{every} $k$-subset is identifying. We prove that for every $k>1$ the maximal order of such a graph is at most $2k-2.$ Constructions attaining the maximal order are given for infinitely many values of $k.$ The corresponding problem of $k$-subsets identifying any at most $\ell$ vertices is considered as well.

Given an arrangement of lines in the plane, what is the minimum number c of colors required to color the lines so that no cell of the arrangement is monochromatic? In this paper we give bounds on the number c both for the above question, as well as some of its variations. We redefine these problems as geometric hypergraph coloring problems. If we define $\Hlinecell$ as the hypergraph where vertices are lines and edges represent cells of the arrangement, the answer to the above question is equal to the chromatic number of this hypergraph. We prove that this chromatic number is between Ω(logn/loglogn). and O(n√). Similarly, we give bounds on the minimum size of a subset S of the intersections of the lines in A such that every cell is bounded by at least one of the vertices in S. This may be seen as a problem on guarding cells with vertices when the lines act as obstacles. The problem can also be defined as the minimum vertex cover problem in the hypergraph $\Hvertexcell$, the vertices of […]

The Magnus-Derek game (also called the maximal variant of the vector game), introduced by Nedev and Muthukrishnan is the following: a token is moved around a table with n positions. In each round of the game Magnus chooses a number and then Derek chooses a direction (clockwise or counterclockwise), and the token moves that many positions into that direction. The goal of Magnus is to maximize the number of positions visited, the goal of Derek is the opposite. In the minimal variant of the game the goals of the two players are exchanged: Magnus wants to minimize the number of positions visited and Derek wants the opposite. Here we introduce a generalization of these games: the token is moved in a group, Magnus chooses an element of the group and Derek decides if the current position is multiplied or divided by that element.

The classical Erd˝os-Szekeres theorem states that a convex k-gon exists in every sufficiently large point set. This problem has been well studied and finding tight asymptotic bounds is considered a challenging open problem. Several variants of the Erd˝os-Szekeres problem have been posed and studied in the last two decades. The well studied variants include the empty convex k-gon problem, convex k-gon with specified number of interior points and the chromatic variant. In this paper, we introduce the following two player game variant of the Erdös-Szekeres problem: Consider a two player game where each player playing in alternate turns, place points in the plane. The objective of the game is to avoid the formation of the convex k-gon among the placed points. The game ends when a convex k-gon is formed and the player who placed the last point loses the game. In our paper we show a winning strategy for the player who plays second in the convex 5-gon game and the empty convex 5-gon game by […]

Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. A subset I of P is called an island if there exists a convex set C such that I = P \C. In this paper we define the generalized island Johnson graph of P as the graph whose vertex consists of all islands of P of cardinality k, two of which are adjacent if their intersection consists of exactly l elements. We show that for large enough values of n, this graph is connected, and give upper and lower bounds on its diameter.

A \em cyclic q-partition of a hypergraph (V,E) is a partition of the edge set E of the form \F,F^θ,F^θ², \ldots, F^θ^q-1\ for some permutation θ of the vertex set V. Let Vₙ = \ 1,2,\ldots,n\. For a positive integer k, Vₙ\choose k denotes the set of all k-subsets of Vₙ. For a nonempty subset K of V_n-1, we let \mathcalKₙ^(K) denote the hypergraph ≤ft(Vₙ, \bigcup_k∈ K Vₙ\choose k\right). In this paper, we find a necessary and sufficient condition on n, q and k for the existence of a cyclic q-partition of \mathcalKₙ^(V_k). In particular, we prove that if p is prime then there is a cyclic p^α-partition of \mathcalK^(Vₖ)ₙ if and only if p^α + β divides n, where β = \lfloor \logₚ k\rfloor. As an application of this result, we obtain two sufficient conditions on n₁,n₂,\ldots,n_t, k, α and a prime p for the existence of a cyclic p^α-partition of the complete t-partite k-uniform hypergraph \mathcal K^(k)_n₁,n₂,\ldots,n_t.

We discuss an Alexandroff topology on ℤ2 having the property that its quotient topologies include the Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse topologies. We introduce a further quotient topology and prove a Jordan curve theorem for it.

We consider the family of rational functions ψw= ∏( xwi - xwi+1 )-1 indexed by words with no repetition. We study the combinatorics of the sums ΨP of the functions ψw when w describes the linear extensions of a given poset P. In particular, we point out the connexions between some transformations on posets and elementary operations on the fraction ΨP. We prove that the denominator of ΨP has a closed expression in terms of the Hasse diagram of P, and we compute its numerator in some special cases. We show that the computation of ΨP can be reduced to the case of bipartite posets. Finally, we compute the numerators associated to some special bipartite graphs as Schubert polynomials.

In this paper, we consider random words ω1ω2ω3⋯ωn of length n, where the letters ωi ∈ℕ are independently generated with a geometric probability such that Pωi=k=pqk-1 where p+q=1 . We have a descent at position i whenever ωi+1 < ωi. The size of such a descent is ωi-ωi+1 and the descent variation is the sum of all the descent sizes for that word. We study various types of random words over the infinite alphabet ℕ, where the letters have geometric probabilities, and find the probability generating functions for descent variation of such words.

Following the track of polyominoes, in particular the column-by-column construction of Temperley and its interpretation in terms of functional equations due to Bousquet-Mélou, we introduce a generic method for the enumeration of classes of directed polycubes the strata of which satisfy some property P. This method is applied to the enumeration of two new families of polycubes, the s-directed polycubes and the vertically-convex s-directed polycubes, with respect to width and volume. The case of non-directed polycubes is also studied and it is shown that the generic method can be applied in this case too. Finally the general case of d-dimensional polycubes, with d≥4, is investigated, and the generic method is extended in order to handle the enumeration of classes of directed d-polycubes.

Let f(n,k) be the minimum number of edges that must be removed from some complete geometric graph G on n points, so that there exists a tree on k vertices that is no longer a planar subgraph of G. In this paper we show that ( 1 / 2 )n2 / k-1-n / 2≤f(n,k) ≤2 n(n-2) / k-2. For the case when k=n, we show that 2 ≤f(n,n) ≤3. For the case when k=n and G is a geometric graph on a set of points in convex position, we completely solve the problem and prove that at least three edges must be removed.

The famous conjecture of Lovász and Plummer, very recently proven by Esperet et al. (2011), asserts that every cubic bridgeless graph has exponentially many perfect matchings. In this paper we improve the bound of Esperet et al. for a specific subclass of cubic bridgeless graphs called the Klee-graphs. We show that every Klee-graph with n ≥8 vertices has at least 3 *2(n+12)/60 perfect matchings.

We consider the property that in a random definite Horn formula of size-3 clauses over n variables, where every such clause is included with probability p, there is a pair of variables for which forward chaining produces all other variables. We show that with high probability the property does not hold for p <= 1/(11n ln n), and does hold for p >= (5 1n ln n)/(n ln n).

In this paper, we consider a concept of adaptive identification of vertices and sets of vertices in different graphs, which was recently introduced by Ben-Haim, Gravier, Lobstein and Moncel (2008). The motivation for adaptive identification comes from applications such as sensor networks and fault detection in multiprocessor systems. We present an optimal adaptive algorithm for identifying vertices in cycles. We also give efficient adaptive algorithms for identifying sets of vertices in different graphs such as cycles, king lattices and square lattices. Adaptive identification is also considered in Hamming spaces, which is one of the most widely studied graphs in the field of identifying codes.

Recently, Deutsch and Elizalde studied the largest fixed points of permutations. Motivated by their work, we consider the analogous problems in weighted set partitions. Let A (n,k) (t) denote the total weight of partitions on [n + 1] = \1,2,..., n + 1\ with the largest singleton \k + 1\. In this paper, explicit formulas for A (n,k) (t) and many combinatorial identities involving A (n,k) (t) are obtained by umbral operators and combinatorial methods. In particular, the permutation case leads to an identity related to tree enumerations, namely, [GRAPHICS] where D-k is the number of permutations of [k] with no fixed points.

Miller and Muller (1960) and independently Moon and Moser (1965) determined the maximum number of maximal independent sets in an n-vertex graph. We give a new and simple proof of this result.

A graph is 1-planar if it can be drawn on the plane so that each edge is crossed by at most one other edge. In this paper, it is shown that each 1-planar graph of minimum degree 6 contains a copy of 4-cycle with all vertices of degree at most 19. In addition, we also show that the complete graph K 4 is light in the family of 1-planar graphs of minimum degree 7, with its height at most 11.

The Tanny sequence T (i) is a sequence defined recursively as T(i) = T(i - 1 - T(i - 1)) + T(i - 2 - T(i - 2)), T(0) = T(1) = T(2) = 1. In the first part of this paper we give combinatorial proofs of all the results regarding T(i), that Tanny proved in his paper "A well-behaved cousin of the Hofstadter sequence", Discrete Mathematics, 105(1992), pp. 227-239, using algebraic means. In most cases our proofs turn out to be simpler and shorter. Moreover, they give a "visual" appeal to the theory developed by Tanny. We also generalize most of Tanny's results. In the second part of the paper we present many new results regarding T(i) and prove them combinatorially. Given two integers n and k, it is interesting to know if T(n) = k or not. In this paper we characterize such numbers.

It is known that a Sturmian sequence S can be defined as a coding of the orbit of rho (called the intercept of S) under a rotation of irrational angle alpha (called the slope). On the other hand, a fixed point of an invertible substitution is Sturmian. Naturally, there are two interrelated questions: (1) Given an invertible substitution, we know that its fixed point is Sturmian. What is the slope and intercept? (2) Which kind of Sturmian sequences can be fixed by certain non-trivial invertible substitutions? In this paper we give a unified treatment to the two questions. We remark that though the results are known, our proof is very elementary and concise.

De Bruijn and Erdos proved that every noncollinear set of n points in the plane determines at least n distinct lines. Chen and Chvatal suggested a possible generalization of this theorem in the framework of metric spaces. We provide partial results in this direction.

For each integer partition mu, let e (F) over tilde (mu)(q; t) be the coefficient of x(1) ... x(n) in the modified Macdonald polynomial (H) over tilde (mu). The polynomial (F) over tilde (mu)(q; t) can be regarded as the Hilbert series of a certain doubly-graded S(n)-module M(mu), or as a q, t-analogue of n! based on permutation statistics inv(mu) and maj(mu) that generalize the classical inversion and major index statistics. This paper uses the combinatorial definition of (F) over tilde (mu) to prove some recursions characterizing these polynomials, and other related ones, when mu is a two-column shape. Our result provides a complement to recent work of Garsia and Haglund, who proved a different recursion for two-column shapes by representation-theoretical methods. For all mu, we show that e (F) over tilde (mu)(q, t) is divisible by certain q-factorials and t-factorials depending on mu. We use our recursion and related tools to explain some of these factors bijectively. Finally, we […]

Consider spanning trees on the two-dimensional Sierpinski gasket SG(n) where stage n is a non-negative integer. For any given vertex x of SG(n), we derive rigorously the probability distribution of the degree j ∈{1,2,3,4} at the vertex and its value in the infinite n limit. Adding up such probabilities of all the vertices divided by the number of vertices, we obtain the average probability distribution of the degree j. The corresponding limiting distribution φj gives the average probability that a vertex is connected by 1, 2, 3 or 4 bond(s) among all the spanning tree configurations. They are rational numbers given as φ1=10957/40464, φ2=6626035/13636368, φ3=2943139/13636368, φ4=124895/4545456.

In recent work, Mansour [Discrete Math. Theoret. Computer Science 11, 2009, 173--186] considers the problem of enumerating all words of length n over {1,2,...,k} (where k is a given integer), that have the total variation equal to a given integer m. In the present paper we study various types of random words over the infinite alphabet ℕ, where the letters have geometric probabilities. We are interested in the probabilities of words of given type to have a given total variation.

We show how the ECO method can be applied to exhaustively generate some classes of permutations. A previous work initiating this technique and motivating our research was published in Ac ta Informatica, 2004, by S. Bacchelli, E. Barcucci, E. Grazzini and E. Pergola.

In a recent paper, Brlek, Jamet and Paquin showed that some extremal infinite smooth words are also infinite Lyndon words. This result raises a natural question: are they the only ones? If no, what do the infinite smooth words that are also Lyndon words look like? In this paper, we give the answer, proving that the only infinite smooth Lyndon words are m(\a ...

Connected graphs in which any two of its cycles have at most one common vertex are called cactuses. In this paper, we continue the work on Laplacian spread of graphs, and determine the graph with maximal Laplacian spread in all cactuses with n vertices.

In 1961, Erdos asked whether or not there exist words of arbitrary length over a fixed finite alphabet that avoid patterns of the form XX' where X' is a permutation of X (called abelian squares). This problem has since been solved in the affirmative in a series of papers from 1968 to 1992. Much less is known in the case of abelian k-th powers, i.e., words of the form X1X2 ... X-k where X-i is a permutation of X-1 for 2 <= i <= k. In this paper, we consider crucial words for abelian k-th powers, i. e., finite words that avoid abelian k-th powers, but which cannot be extended to the right by any letter of their own alphabets without creating an abelian k-th power. More specifically, we consider the problem of determining the minimal length of a crucial word avoiding abelian k-th powers. This problem has already been solved for abelian squares by Evdokimov and Kitaev (2004), who showed that a minimal crucial word over an n-letter alphabet A(n) = \1, 2, ..., n\ avoiding abelian squares has […]

The polynomial ring Z[x(11), ..., x(33)] has a basis called the dual canonical basis whose quantization facilitates the study of representations of the quantum group U-q(sl(3) (C)). On the other hand, Z[x(1 1), ... , x(33)] inherits a basis from the cluster monomial basis of a geometric model of the type D-4 cluster algebra. We prove that these two bases are equal. This extends work of Skandera and proves a conjecture of Fomin and Zelevinsky.

Block-transitive Steiner t-designs form a central part of the study of highly symmetric combinatorial configurations at the interface of several disciplines, including group theory, geometry, combinatorics, coding and information theory, and cryptography. The main result of the paper settles an important open question: There exist no non-trivial examples with t = 7 (or larger). The proof is based on the classification of the finite 3-homogeneous permutation groups, itself relying on the finite simple group classification.

M.-P. Schutzenberger asked to determine the support of the free Lie algebra L(Zm) (A) on a finite alphabet A over the ring Z(m) of integers mod m and all pairs of twin and anti-twin words, i.e., words that appear with equal (resp. opposite) coefficients in each Lie polynomial. We characterize the complement of the support of L(Zm) (A) in A* as the set of all words w such that m divides all the coefficients appearing in the monomials of l* (w), where l* is the adjoint endomorphism of the left normed Lie bracketing l of the free Lie ring. Calculating l* (w) via the shuffle product, we recover the well known result of Duchamp and Thibon (Discrete Math. 76 (1989) 123-132) for the support of the free Lie ring in a much more natural way. We conjecture that two words u and v of common length n, which lie in the support of the free Lie ring, are twin (resp. anti-twin) if and only if either u = v or n is odd and u = (v) over tilde (resp. if n is even and u = (v) over tilde), where (v) over […]

We prove that for each partition of the Lobachevsky plane into finitely many Borel pieces one of the cells of the partition contains an unbounded centrally symmetric subset.

We study the Fox coloring invariants of rational knots. We express the propagation of the colors down the twists of these knots and ultimately the determinant of them with the help of finite increasing sequences whose terms of even order are even and whose terms of odd order are odd.

A composition of a positive integer n is a finite sequence of positive integers a(1), a(2), ..., a(k) such that a(1) + a(2) + ... + a(k) = n. Let d be a fixed nonnegative integer. We say that we have an ascent of size d or more if a(i+1) >= a(i) + d. We determine the mean, variance and limiting distribution of the number of ascents of size d or more in the set of compositions of n. We also study the average size of the greatest ascent over all compositions of n.

The problem of string pattern avoidance in generalized non-crossing trees is studied. The generating functions for generalized non-crossing trees avoiding string patterns of length one and two are obtained. The Lagrange inversion formula is used to obtain the explicit formulas for some special cases. A bijection is also established between generalized non-crossing trees with special string pattern avoidance and little Schr ̈oder paths.

We consider the sum u of differences between adjacent letters of a word of n letters, chosen uniformly at random from a given alphabet. This paper obtains the enumerating generating function for the number of such words with respect to the sum u, as well as explicit formulas for the mean and variance of u.

We present an extensive study of the Eulerian distribution on the set of centrosymmetric involutions, namely, involutions in S(n) satisfying the property sigma(i) + sigma(n + 1 - i) = n + 1 for every i = 1 ... n. We find some combinatorial properties for the generating polynomial of such distribution, together with an explicit formula for its coefficients. Afterwards, we carry out an analogous study for the subset of centrosymmetric involutions without fixed points.

We study the number of connected spanning subgraphs f(d,b) (n) on the generalized Sierpinski gasket SG(d,b) (n) at stage n with dimension d equal to two, three and four for b = 2, and layer b equal to three and four for d = 2. The upper and lower bounds for the asymptotic growth constant, defined as zSG(d,b) = lim(v ->infinity) ln f(d,b)(n)/v where v is the number of vertices, on SG(2,b) (n) with b = 2, 3, 4 are derived in terms of the results at a certain stage. The numerical values of zSG(d,b) are obtained.

We study two graph parameters, namely the number of spanning forests and the number of connected subgraphs, for self-similar graphs with exactly two boundary vertices. In both cases, we determine the general behavior for these and related auxiliary quantities by means of polynomial recurrences and a careful asymptotic analysis. It turns out that the so-called resistance scaling factor of a graph plays an essential role in both instances, a phenomenon that was previously observed for the number of spanning trees. Several explicit examples show that our findings are likely to hold in an even more general setting.

Let (w_n)0 < n be the sequence known as Integer Sequence A047749 In this paper, we show that the integer w_n enumerates various kinds of symmetric structures of order two. We ﬁrst consider ternary trees having a reflexive symmetry and we relate all symmetric combinatorial objects by means of bijection. We then generalize the symmetric structures and correspondences to an infinite family of symmetric objects.

We show that a determinant of Stirling cycle numbers counts unlabeled acyclic single-source automata. The proof involves a bijection from these automata to certain marked lattice paths and a sign-reversing involution to evaluate the determinant. We also give a formula for the number of acyclic automata with a given set of sources.

By application of the Markov-WZ method, we prove a more general form of a bivariate generating function identity containing, as particular cases, Koecher's and Almkvist-Granville's Apéry-like formulae for odd zeta values. As a consequence, we get a new identity producing Apéry-like series for all ζ(2n+4m+3),n,m ≥ 0, convergent at the geometric rate with ratio 2−10.

For an odd prime p and each non-empty subset S ⊂ GF(p), consider the hyperelliptic curve X_S deﬁned by y^2 = f_s(x), where f_s(x) = \P_{a2S} (x-a). Using a connection between binary quadratic residue codes and hyperelliptic curves over GF(p), this paper investigates how coding theory bounds give rise to bounds such as the following example: for all sufﬁciently large primes p there exists a subset S ⊂ GF(p) for which the bound |X_S(GF(p))| > 1.39p holds. We also use the quasi-quadratic residue codes deﬁned below to construct an example of a formally self-dual optimal code whose zeta function does not satisfy the "Riemann hypothesis."

If F(x) = e^G(x), where F(x) = \Sum f(n)x^n and G(x) = \Sum g(n)x^n, with 0 ≤ g(n) = O(n^θn/n!), θ ∈ (0,1), and gcd(n : g(n) > 0) = 1, then f(n) = o(f(n − 1)). This gives an answer to Compton's request in Question 8.3 [Compton 1987] for an "easily verifiable sufficient condition" to show that an adequate class of structures has a labelled first-order 0-1 law, namely it sufﬁces to show that the labelled component count function is O(n^θn) for some θ ∈ (0,1). It also provides the means to recursively construct an adequate class of structures with a labelled 0-1 law but not an unlabelled 0-1 law, answering Compton's Question 8.4.

Recently, Kitaev and Remmel refined the well-known permutation statistic "descent" by fixing parity of one of the descent's numbers which was extended and generalized in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we shall fix a set partition of the natural numbers N,(N1, ..., Ns), and we study the distribution of descents, levels, and rises according to whether the first letter of the descent, rise, or level lies in Ni over the set of words over the alphabet [k] = 1, ..., k. In particular, we refine and generalize some of the results by Burstein and Mansour

We study the number of spanning forests on the Sierpinski gasket SGd(n) at stage n with dimension d equal to two, three and four, and determine the asymptotic behaviors. The corresponding results on the generalized Sierpinski gasket SGd;b(n) with d = 2 and b = 3 ; 4 are obtained. We also derive upper bounds for the asymptotic growth constants for both SGd and SG2,b.

For any class of binary functions on [n]={1, ..., n} a classical result by Sauer states a sufficient condition for its VC-dimension to be at least d: its cardinality should be at least O(nd-1). A necessary condition is that its cardinality be at least 2d (which is O(1) with respect to n). How does the size of a 'typical' class of VC-dimension d compare to these two extreme thresholds ? To answer this, we consider classes generated randomly by two methods, repeated biased coin flips on the n-dimensional hypercube or uniform sampling over the space of all possible classes of cardinality k on [n]. As it turns out, the typical behavior of such classes is much more similar to the necessary condition; the cardinality k need only be larger than a threshold of 2d for its VC-dimension to be at least d with high probability. If its expected size is greater than a threshold of O(&log;n) (which is still significantly smaller than the sufficient size of O(nd-1)) then it shatters every set of size d […]

This work is concerned with the perimeter enumeration of column-convex polyominoes. We consider both the rectangular lattice and the hexagonal lattice. For the rectangular lattice, two formulas for the generating function (gf) already exist and, to all appearances, neither of them admits of a further simplification. We first rederive those two formulas (so as to make the paper self-contained), and then we enrich the rectangular lattice gf with some additional variables. That done, we make a change of variables, which (practically) produces the hexagonal lattice gf. This latter gf was first found by Lin and Wu in 1990. However, our present formula, in addition to having a simpler form, also allows a substantially easier Taylor series expansion. As to the methods, our one is descended from algebraic languages, whereas Lin and Wu used the Temperley methodology.

We generalize (and hence trivialize and routinize) numerous explicit evaluations of determinants and pfaffians due to Kuperberg, as well as a determinant of Tsuchiya. The level of generality of our statements render their proofs easy and routine, by using Dodgson Condensation and/or Krattenthaler's factor exhaustion method.