Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |

Let v be a grid path made of north and east steps. The lattice TAM(v), based on all grid paths weakly above the grid path v sharing the same endpoints as v, was introduced by Pre ́ville-Ratelle and Viennot (2014) and corresponds to the usual Tamari lattice in the case v = (NE)n. They showed that TAM(v) is isomorphic to the dual of TAM(←−v ), where ←−v is the reverse of v with N and E exchanged. Our main contribution is a bijection from intervals in TAM(v) to non-separable planar maps. It follows that the number of intervals in TAM(v) over all v of length n is 2(3n+3)! (n+2)!(2n+3)! . This formula was first obtained by Tutte(1963) for non-separable planar maps.

We present a new, explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials Pλ and show that they can be written as a trace over a product of (infinite dimensional) matrices. These matrices satisfy the Zamolodchikov– Faddeev (ZF) algebra. We construct solutions of the ZF algebra from a rank-reduced version of the Yang–Baxter algebra. As a corollary, we find that the normalization of the stationary measure of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process is a Macdonald polynomial with all variables set equal to one.

Corner polyhedra were introduced by Eppstein and Mumford (2014) as the set of simply connected 3D polyhedra such that all vertices have non negative integer coordinates, edges are parallel to the coordinate axes and all vertices but one can be seen from infinity in the direction (1, 1, 1). These authors gave a remarkable characterization of the set of corner polyhedra graphs, that is graphs that can be skeleton of a corner polyhedron: as planar maps, they are the duals of some particular bipartite triangulations, which we call hereafter corner triangulations.In this paper we count corner polyhedral graphs by determining the generating function of the corner triangulations with respect to the number of vertices: we obtain an explicit rational expression for it in terms of the Catalan gen- erating function. We first show that this result can be derived using Tutte's classical compositional approach. Then, in order to explain the occurrence of the Catalan series we give a direct algebraic decomposition of corner triangu- lations: in particular we exhibit a family of almond triangulations that admit a recursive decomposition structurally equivalent to the decomposition of binary trees. Finally we sketch a direct bijection between binary trees and almond triangulations. Our combinatorial analysis yields a simpler alternative to the algorithm of Eppstein and Mumford for endowing a corner polyhedral graph with the cycle cover structure needed to realize it as a polyhedral […]

We prove a conjecture of J.-C. Novelli, J.-Y. Thibon, and L. K. Williams (2010) about an equivalence of two triples of statistics on permutations. To prove this conjecture, we construct a bijection through different combinatorial objects, starting with a Catalan based object related to the PASEP.

In the 1970s, Tutte developed a clever algebraic approach, based on certain " invariants " , to solve a functional equation that arises in the enumeration of properly colored triangulations. The enumeration of plane lattice walks confined to the first quadrant is governed by similar equations, and has led in the past decade to a rich collection of attractive results dealing with the nature (algebraic, D-finite or not) of the associated generating function, depending on the set of allowed steps. We first adapt Tutte's approach to prove (or reprove) the algebraicity of all quadrant models known or conjectured to be algebraic (with one small exception). This includes Gessel's famous model, and the first proof ever found for one model with weighted steps. To be applicable, the method requires the existence of two rational functions called invariant and decoupling function respectively. When they exist, algebraicity comes out (almost) automatically. Then, we move to an analytic viewpoint which has already proved very powerful, leading in particular to integral expressions of the generating function in the non-D-finite cases, as well as to proofs of non-D-finiteness. We develop in this context a weaker notion of invariant. Now all quadrant models have invariants, and for those that have in addition a decoupling function, we obtain integral-free expressions of the generating function, and a proof that this series is differentially algebraic (that is, satisfies a […]

It has been shown by Pittel and Romik that the random surface associated with a large rectangular Youngtableau converges to a deterministic limit. We study the fluctuations from this limit along the edges of the rectangle.We show that in the corner, these fluctuations are gaussian whereas, away from the corner and when the rectangle isa square, the fluctuations are given by the Tracy-Widom distribution. Our method is based on a connection with theJacobi ensemble.

We continue the investigations of lattice walks in the three-dimensional lattice restricted to the positive octant. We separate models which clearly have a D-finite generating function from models for which there is no reason to expect that their generating function is D-finite, and we isolate a small set of models whose nature remains unclear and requires further investigation. For these, we give some experimental results about their asymptotic behaviour, based on the inspection of a large number of initial terms. At least for some of them, the guessed asymptotic form seems to tip the balance towards non-D-finiteness.

A q-integral over an order polytope coming from a poset is interpreted as a generating function of linear extensions of the poset. As an application, theq-beta integral and aq-analog of Dirichlet’s integral are computed. A combinatorial interpretation of aq-Selberg integral is also obtained.

We present a new definition of non-ambiguous trees (NATs) as labelled binary trees. We thus get a differ- ential equation whose solution can be described combinatorially. This yield a new formula for the number of NATs. We also obtain q-versions of our formula. And we generalize NATs to higher dimension.

We describe a bijective proof of Macdonald's reduced word identity using pipe dreams and Little's bumping algorithm. The proof extends to a principal specialization of the identity due to Fomin and Stanley. Our bijective tools also allow us to address a problem posed by Fomin and Kirillov from 1997, using work of Wachs, Lenart and Serrano- Stump.

In this extended abstract, we give a complete description and enumeration of smooth and rationally smooth Schubert varieties in finite type. In particular, we show that rationally smooth Schubert varieties are in bijection with a new combinatorial data structure called staircase diagrams.

We describe a combinatorial formula for the coefficients when the dual immaculate quasisymmetric func- tions are decomposed into Young quasisymmetric Schur functions. We prove this using an analogue of Schensted insertion. We also provide a Remmel-Whitney style rule to generate these coefficients algorithmically.

We introduce a new family of complete lattices, arising from a digraph together with a valuation on its vertices and generalizing a previous construction of the author. We then apply this to the study of two long-standing conjectures of Dyer, and we provide a description of the Tamari lattice with this theory.

A classical result by Schoenberg (1942) identifies all real-valued functions that preserve positive semidefi- niteness (psd) when applied entrywise to matrices of arbitrary dimension. Schoenberg's work has continued to attract significant interest, including renewed recent attention due to applications in high-dimensional statistics. However, despite a great deal of effort in the area, an effective characterization of entrywise functions preserving positivity in a fixed dimension remains elusive to date. As a first step, we characterize new classes of polynomials preserving pos- itivity in fixed dimension. The proof of our main result is representation theoretic, and employs Schur polynomials. An alternate, variational approach also leads to several interesting consequences including (a) a hitherto unexplored Schubert cell-type stratification of the cone of psd matrices, (b) new connections between generalized Rayleigh quo- tients of Hadamard powers and Schur polynomials, and (c) a description of the joint kernels of Hadamard powers.

The involution walk is a random walk on the symmetric group generated by involutions with a number of 2-cycles sampled from the binomial distribution with parameter p. This is a parallelization of the lazy transposition walk onthesymmetricgroup.Theinvolutionwalkisshowninthispapertomixfor1 ≤p≤1fixed,nsufficientlylarge 2 in between log1/p(n) steps and log2/(1+p)(n) steps. The paper introduces a new technique for finding eigenvalues of random walks on the symmetric group generated by many conjugacy classes using the character polynomial for the characters of the representations of the symmetric group. This is especially efficient at calculating the large eigenvalues. The smaller eigenvalues are handled by developing monotonicity relations that also give after sufficient time the likelihood order, the order from most likely to least likely state. The walk was introduced to study a conjecture about a random walk on the unitary group from the information theory of back holes.

Start with a permutation matrix π and consider all matrices that can be obtained from π by taking downward row operations and rightward column operations; the closure of this set gives the matrix Schubert variety Xπ. We characterize when the ideal defining Xπ is toric (with respect to a 2n − 1-dimensional torus) and study the associated polytope of its projectivization. We construct regular triangulations of these polytopes which we show are geometric realizations of a family of subword complexes. We also show that these complexes can be realized geometrically via regular triangulations of root polytopes. This implies that a family of β-Grothendieck polynomials are special cases of reduced forms in the subdivision algebra of root polytopes. We also write the volume and Ehrhart series of root polytopes in terms of β-Grothendieck polynomials. Subword complexes were introduced by Knutson and Miller in 2004, who showed that they are homeomorphic to balls or spheres and raised the question of their polytopal realizations.

Introduced by Kawanaka in order to find the unipotent representations of finite groups of Lie type, gener- alized Gelfand–Graev characters have remained somewhat mysterious. Even in the case of the finite general linear groups, the combinatorics of their decompositions has not been worked out. This paper re-interprets Kawanaka's def- inition in type A in a way that gives far more flexibility in computations. We use these alternate constructions to show how to obtain generalized Gelfand–Graev representations directly from the maximal unipotent subgroups. We also explicitly decompose the corresponding generalized Gelfand–Graev characters in terms of unipotent representations, thereby recovering the Kostka–Foulkes polynomials as multiplicities.

The Plücker relations which define the Grassmann manifolds as projective varieties are well known. Grass-mann manifolds are examples of minuscule flag manifolds. We study the generalized Plücker relations for minuscule flag manifolds independent of Lie type. To do this we combinatorially model the Plücker coordinates based on Wild-berger’s construction of minuscule Lie algebra representations; it uses the colored partially ordered sets known asminuscule posets. We obtain, uniformly across Lie type, descriptions of the Plücker relations of “extreme weight”. We show that these are “supported” by “double-tailed diamond” sublattices of minuscule lattices. From this, we obtain a complete set of Plücker relations for the exceptional minuscule flag manifolds. These Plücker relations are straightening laws for their coordinate rings.

We study the motion of a robotic arm inside a rectangular tunnel of width 2. We prove that the configuration space S of all possible positions of the robot is a CAT(0) cubical complex. Before this work, very few families of robots were known to have CAT(0) configuration spaces. This property allows us to move the arm optimally from one position to another.

There are two reasonable ways to put a cluster structure on a positroid variety. In one, the initial seed is a set of Plu ̈cker coordinates. In the other, the initial seed consists of certain monomials in the edge weights of a plabic graph. We will describe an automorphism of the positroid variety, the twist, which takes one to the other. For the big positroid cell, this was already done by Marsh and Scott; we generalize their results to all positroid varieties. This also provides an inversion of the boundary measurement map which is more general than Talaska's, in that it works for all reduced plabic graphs rather than just Le-diagrams. This is the analogue for positroid varieties of the twist map of Berenstein, Fomin and Zelevinsky for double Bruhat cells. Our construction involved the combinatorics of dimer configurations on bipartite planar graphs.

Generalizing the connection between the classes of the sylvester congruence and the binary trees, we show that the classes of the congruence of the weak order on Sn defined as the transitive closure of the rewriting rule UacV1b1 ···VkbkW ≡k UcaV1b1 ···VkbkW, for letters a < b1,...,bk < c and words U,V1,...,Vk,W on [n], are in bijection with acyclic k-triangulations of the (n + 2k)-gon, or equivalently with acyclic pipe dreams for the permutation (1,...,k,n + k,...,k + 1,n + k + 1,...,n + 2k). It enables us to transport the known lattice and Hopf algebra structures from the congruence classes of ≡k to these acyclic pipe dreams, and to describe the product and coproduct of this algebra in terms of pipe dreams. Moreover, it shows that the fan obtained by coarsening the Coxeter fan according to the classes of ≡k is the normal fan of the corresponding brick polytope

We investigate a poset structure that extends the weak order on a finite Coxeter group W to the set of all faces of the permutahedron of W. We call this order the facial weak order. We first provide two alternative characterizations of this poset: a first one, geometric, that generalizes the notion of inversion sets of roots, and a second one, combinatorial, that uses comparisons of the minimal and maximal length representatives of the cosets. These characterizations are then used to show that the facial weak order is in fact a lattice, generalizing a well-known result of A. Bjo ̈rner for the classical weak order. Finally, we show that any lattice congruence of the classical weak order induces a lattice congruence of the facial weak order, and we give a geometric interpretation of its classes.

Graph associahedra are polytopes realizing the nested complex N(G) on connected subgraphs of a graph G.While all known explicit constructions produce polytopes with the same normal fan, the great variety of fan realizationsof classical associahedra and the analogy between finite type cluster complexes and nested complexes incitedus to transpose S. Fomin and A. Zelevinsky's construction of compatibility fans for generalized associahedra (2003)to graph associahedra. Using a compatibility degree, we construct one fan realization of N(G) for each of its facets.Specifying G to paths and cycles, we recover a construction by F. Santos for classical associahedra (2011) and extendF. Chapoton, S. Fomin and A. Zelevinsky's construction (2002) for type B and C generalized associahedra.

There are three main constructions of supercharacter theories for a group G. The first, defined by Diaconis and Isaacs, comes from the action of a group A via automorphisms on our given group G. Another general way to construct a supercharacter theory for G, defined by Diaconis and Isaacs, uses the action of a group A of automor- phisms of the cyclotomic field Q[ζ|G|]. The third, defined by Hendrickson, is combining a supercharacter theories of a normal subgroup N of G with a supercharacter theory of G/N . In this paper we construct a supercharacter theory from an arbitrary set of normal subgroups of G. We show that when we consider the set of all normal subgroups of G, the corresponding supercharacter theory is related to a partition of G given by certain values on the central primitive idempotents. Also, we show the supercharacter theories that we construct can not be obtained via automorphisms or a single normal subgroup.

We give a different presentation of a recent bijection due to Chapuy and Dołe ̨ga for nonorientable bipartite quadrangulations and we extend it to the case of nonorientable general maps. This can be seen as a Bouttier–Di Francesco–Guitter-like generalization of the Cori–Vauquelin–Schaeffer bijection in the context of general nonori- entable surfaces. In the particular case of triangulations, the encoding objects take a particularly simple form and we recover a famous asymptotic enumeration formula found by Gao.

In his study of Kazhdan-Lusztig cells in affine type A, Shi has introduced an affine analog of Robinson- Schensted correspondence. We generalize the Matrix-Ball Construction of Viennot and Fulton to give a more combi- natorial realization of Shi's algorithm. As a biproduct, we also give a way to realize the affine correspondence via the usual Robinson-Schensted bumping algorithm. Next, inspired by Honeywill, we extend the algorithm to a bijection between extended affine symmetric group and triples (P, Q, ρ) where P and Q are tabloids and ρ is a dominant weight. The weights ρ get a natural interpretation in terms of the Affine Matrix-Ball Construction. Finally, we prove that fibers of the inverse map possess a Weyl group symmetry, explaining the dominance condition on weights.

We provide bijections between the cluster variables (and clusters) in two families of cluster algebras which have received considerable attention. These cluster algebras are the ones associated with certain Grassmannians of k-planes, and those associated with certain spaces of decorated SLk-local systems in the disk in the work of Fock and Goncharov. When k is 3, this bijection can be described explicitly using the combinatorics of Kuperberg's basis of non-elliptic webs. Using our bijection and symmetries of these cluster algebras, we provide evidence for conjectures of Fomin and Pylyavskyy concerning cluster variables in Grassmannians of 3-planes. We also prove their conjecture that there are infinitely many indecomposable nonarborizable webs in the Grassmannian of 3-planes in 9-dimensional space.

We construct a type A(1) n−1 affine geometric crystal structure on the Grassmannian Gr(k, n). The tropicalization of this structure recovers the combinatorics of crystal operators on semistandard Young tableaux of rectangular shape (with n − k rows), including the affine crystal operator e 0. In particular, the promotion operation on these tableaux essentially corresponds to cyclically shifting the Plu ̈cker coordinates of the Grassmannian.

We introduce a new concept of resonance on discrete dynamical systems. Our main result is an equivariant bijection between plane partitions in a box under rowmotion and increasing tableaux under K-promotion, using a generalization of the equivariance of promotion and rowmotion [J. Striker–N. Williams '12] to higher dimensional lattices. This theorem implies new results for K-promotion and new proofs of previous results on plane partitions.

The positroid decomposition of the Grassmannian refines the well-known Schubert decomposition, and has a rich combinatorial structure. There are a number of interesting combinatorial posets which index positroid varieties,just as Young diagrams index Schubert varieties. In addition, Postnikov’s boundary measurement map gives a family of parametrizations for each positroid variety. The domain of each parametrization is the space of edge weights of a weighted planar network. The positroid stratification of the Grassmannian provides an elementary example of Lusztig’s theory of total non negativity for partial flag varieties, and has remarkable applications to particle physics.We generalize the combinatorics of positroid varieties to the Lagrangian Grassmannian, the moduli space of maximal isotropic subspaces with respect to a symplectic form

We introduce the difference operator for functions defined on strict partitions and prove a polynomiality property for a summation involving the bar length (hook length) and content statistics. As an application, several new hook-content formulas for strict partitions are derived.

Plabic graphs are combinatorial objects used to study the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. Faces of plabic graphs are labeled by k-element sets of positive integers, and a collection of such k-element sets are the face labels of a plabic graph if that collection forms a maximal weakly separated collection. There are moves that one can apply to plabic graphs, and thus to maximal weakly separated collections, analogous to mutations of seeds in cluster algebras. In this short note, we show if two maximal weakly separated collections can be mutated from one to another, then one can do so while freezing the face labels they have in common. In particular, this provides a new, and we think simpler, proof of Postnikov's result that any two reduced plabic graphs with the same decorated permutations can be mutated to each other.

We consider the enumeration of walks on the two-dimensional non-negative integer lattice with steps defined by a finite set S ⊆ {±1, 0}2 . Up to isomorphism there are 79 unique two-dimensional models to consider, and previous work in this area has used the kernel method, along with a rigorous computer algebra approach, to show that 23 of the 79 models admit D-finite generating functions. In 2009, Bostan and Kauers used Pade ́-Hermite approximants to guess differential equations which these 23 generating functions satisfy, in the process guessing asymptotics of their coefficient sequences. In this article we provide, for the first time, a complete rigorous verification of these guesses. Our technique is to use the kernel method to express 19 of the 23 generating functions as diagonals of tri-variate rational functions and apply the methods of analytic combinatorics in several variables (the remaining 4 models have algebraic generating functions and can thus be handled by univariate techniques). This approach also shows the link between combinatorial properties of the models and features of its asymptotics such as asymptotic and polynomial growth factors. In addition, we give expressions for the number of walks returning to the x-axis, the y-axis, and the origin, proving recently conjectured asymptotics of Bostan, Chyzak, van Hoeij, Kauers, and Pech.

We use Khovanov-Lauda-Rouquier (KLR) algebras to categorify a crystal isomorphism between a funda-mental crystal and the tensor product of a Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystal and another fundamental crystal, all in affine type. The nodes of the Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystal correspond to a family of “trivial” modules. The nodes of the fun-damental crystal correspond to simple modules of the corresponding cyclotomic KLR algebra. The crystal operators correspond to socle of restriction and behave compatibly with the rule for tensor product of crystal graphs.

We study the relationship between rational slope Dyck paths and invariant subsets in Z, extending the work of the first two authors in the relatively prime case. We also find a bijection between (dn, dm)–Dyck paths and d-tuples of (n, m)-Dyck paths endowed with certain gluing data. These are first steps towards understanding the relationship between the rational slope Catalan combinatorics in non relatively prime case and the geometry of affine Springer fibers and representation theory.

Based on results by Brugallé and Mikhalkin, Fomin and Mikhalkin give formulas for computing classical Severi degrees Nd,δ using long-edge graphs. In 2012, Block, Colley and Kennedy considered the logarithmic versionof a special function associated to long-edge graphs which appeared in Fomin-Mikhalkin’s formula, and conjecturedit to be linear. They have since proved their conjecture. At the same time, motivated by their conjecture, we considera special multivariate function associated to long-edge graphs that generalizes their function. The main result of thispaper is that the multivariate function we define is always linear.The first application of our linearity result is that by applying it to classical Severi degrees, we recover quadraticity of Qd,δ and a bound δ for the threshold of polynomiality ofNd,δ.Next, in joint work with Osserman, we apply thelinearity result to a special family of toric surfaces and obtain universal polynomial results having connections to the Göttsche-Yau-Zaslow formula. As a result, we provide combinatorial formulas for the two unidentified power series B1(q) and B2(q) appearing in the Göttsche-Yau-Zaslow formula.The proof of our linearity result is completely combinatorial. We defineτ-graphs which generalize long-edge graphs,and a closely related family of combinatorial objects we call (τ,n)-words. By introducing height functions and aconcept of irreducibility, we describe ways to decompose certain families of (τ,n)-words into […]

The Schubert polynomials lift the Schur basis of symmetric polynomials into a basis for Z[x1; x2; : : :]. We suggest the prism tableau model for these polynomials. A novel aspect of this alternative to earlier results is that it directly invokes semistandard tableaux; it does so as part of a colored tableau amalgam. In the Grassmannian case, a prism tableau with colors ignored is a semistandard Young tableau. Our arguments are developed from the Gr¨obner geometry of matrix Schubert varieties.

We conjecture two combinatorial interpretations for the symmetric function ∆eken, where ∆f is an eigenoperator for the modified Macdonald polynomials defined by Bergeron, Garsia, Haiman, and Tesler. Both interpretations can be seen as generalizations of the Shuffle Conjecture, a statement originally conjectured by Haglund, Haiman, Remmel, Loehr, and Ulyanov and recently proved by Carlsson and Mellit. We show how previous work of the second and third authors on Tesler matrices and ordered set partitions can be used to verify several cases of our conjectures. Furthermore, we use a reciprocity identity and LLT polynomials to prove another case. Finally, we show how our conjectures inspire 4-variable generalizations of the Catalan numbers, extending work of Garsia, Haiman, and the first author.

In general, the existence of a maximal green sequence is not mutation invariant. In this paper we show that it is in fact mutation invariant for cluster quivers associated to most marked surfaces. We develop a procedure to find maximal green sequences for cluster quivers associated to an arbitrary triangulation of closed higher genus marked surfaces with at least two punctures. As a corollary, it follows that any triangulation of a marked surface with at least one boundary component has a maximal green sequence.

We consider GLn (Fq)-analogues of certain factorization problems in the symmetric group Sn: ratherthan counting factorizations of the long cycle(1,2, . . . , n) given the number of cycles of each factor, we countfactorizations of a regular elliptic element given the fixed space dimension of each factor. We show that, as in Sn, the generating function counting these factorizations has attractive coefficients after an appropriate change of basis.Our work generalizes several recent results on factorizations in GLn (Fq) and also uses a character-based approach.We end with an asymptotic application and some questions.

The consecutive pattern poset is the infinite partially ordered set of all permutations where σ ≤ τ if τ has a subsequence of adjacent entries in the same relative order as the entries of σ. We study the structure of the intervals in this poset from topological, poset-theoretic, and enumerative perspectives. In particular, we prove that all intervals are rank-unimodal and strongly Sperner, and we characterize disconnected and shellable intervals. We also show that most intervals are not shellable and have Mo ̈bius function equal to zero.

We establish a combinatorial connection between the real geometry and the K-theory of complex Schubert curves Spλ‚q, which are one-dimensional Schubert problems defined with respect to flags osculating the rational normal curve. In a previous paper, the second author showed that the real geometry of these curves is described by the orbits of a map ω on skew tableaux, defined as the commutator of jeu de taquin rectification and promotion. In particular, the real locus of the Schubert curve is naturally a covering space of RP1, with ω as the monodromy operator.We provide a fast, local algorithm for computing ω without rectifying the skew tableau, and show that certain steps in our algorithm are in bijective correspondence with Pechenik and Yong's genomic tableaux, which enumerate the K-theoretic Littlewood-Richardson coefficient associated to the Schubert curve. Using this bijection, we give purely combinatorial proofs of several numerical results involving the K-theory and real geometry of Spλ‚q.

Given a tree embedded in a disk, we define two lattices - the oriented flip graph of noncrossing arcs and the lattice of noncrossing tree partitions. When the interior vertices of the tree have degree 3, the oriented flip graph is equivalent to the oriented exchange graph of a type A cluster algebra. Our main result is an isomorphism between the shard intersection order of the oriented flip graph and the lattice of noncrossing tree partitions. As a consequence, we deduce a simple characterization of c-matrices of type A cluster algebras.

We introduce n(n − 1)/2 natural involutions (“toggles”) on the set S of noncrossing partitions π of size n, along with certain composite operations obtained by composing these involutions. We show that for many operations T of this kind, a surprisingly large family of functions f on S (including the function that sends π to the number of blocks of π) exhibits the homomesy phenomenon: the average of f over the elements of a T -orbit is the same for all T -orbits. Our methods apply more broadly to toggle operations on independent sets of certain graphs.

The poset P of all permutations ordered by pattern containment is a fundamental object of study in the field of permutation patterns. This poset has a very rich and complex topology and an understanding of its Möbius function has proved particularly elusive, although results have been slowly emerging in the last few years. Using a variety of topological techniques we present a two term formula for the Mo ̈bius function of intervals in P. The first term in this formula is, up to sign, the number of so called normal occurrences of one permutation in another. Our definition of normal occurrences is similar to those that have appeared in several variations in the literature on the Möbius function of this and other posets, but simpler than most of them. The second term in the formula is (still) complicated, but we conjecture that it equals zero for a significant proportion of intervals. We present some cases where the second term vanishes and others where it is nonzero. Computing the Möbius function recursively from its definition has exponential complexity, whereas the computation of the first term in our formula is polynomial and the exponential part is isolated to the second term, which seems to often vanish. This is thus the first polynomial time formula for the Möbius function of what appears to be a large proportion of all intervals of P.

Lusztig's theory of PBW bases gives a way to realize the crystal B(∞) for any simple complex Lie algebra where the underlying set consists of Kostant partitions. In fact, there are many different such realizations, one for each reduced expression for the longest element of the Weyl group. There is an algorithm to calculate the actions of the crystal operators, but it can be quite complicated. For ADE types, we give conditions on the reduced expression which ensure that the corresponding crystal operators are given by simple combinatorial bracketing rules. We then give at least one reduced expression satisfying our conditions in every type except E8, and discuss the resulting combinatorics. Finally, we describe the relationship with more standard tableaux combinatorics in types A and D.

Amoebas are projections of complex algebraic varieties in the algebraic torus under a Log-absolute value map, which have connections to various mathematical subjects. While amoebas of hypersurfaces have been inten- sively studied during the last years, the non-hypersurface case is barely understood so far. We investigate intersections of amoebas of n hypersurfaces in (C∗)n, which are genuine supersets of amoebas given by non-hypersurface vari- eties. Our main results are amoeba analogs of Bernstein's Theorem and Be ́zout's Theorem providing an upper bound for the number of connected components of such intersections. Moreover, we show that the order map for hypersur- face amoebas can be generalized in a natural way to intersections of amoebas. We show that, analogous to the case of amoebas of hypersurfaces, the restriction of this generalized order map to a single connected component is still 1-to-1.

The dual stable Grothendieck polynomials are a deformation of the Schur functions, originating in the study of the K-theory of the Grassmannian. We generalize these polynomials by introducing a countable family of additional parameters such that the generalization still defines symmetric functions. We outline two self-contained proofs of this fact, one of which constructs a family of involutions on the set of reverse plane partitions generalizing the Bender-Knuth involutions on semistandard tableaux, whereas the other classifies the structure of reverse plane partitions with entries 1 and 2.

Characterizing sets of permutations whose associated quasisymmetric function is symmetric and Schur- positive is a long-standing problem in algebraic combinatorics. In this paper we present a general method to construct Schur-positive sets and multisets, based on geometric grid classes and the product operation. Our approach produces many new instances of Schur-positive sets, and provides a broad framework that explains the existence of known such sets that until now were sporadic cases.

We present a general diagrammatic approach to the construction of efficient algorithms for computingthe Fourier transform of a function on a finite group. By extending work which connects Bratteli diagrams to theconstruction of Fast Fourier Transform algorithms we make explicit use of the path algebra connection and work inthe setting of quivers. In this setting the complexity of an algorithm for computing a Fourier transform reduces to pathcounting in the Bratelli diagram, and we generalize Stanley's work on differential posets to provide such counts. Ourmethods give improved upper bounds for computing the Fourier transform for the general linear groups over finitefields, the classical Weyl groups, and homogeneous spaces of finite groups.

We present two results, the first on the distribution of the roots of a polynomial over the ring of integers modulo n and the second on the distribution of the roots of the Sylvester resultant of two multivariate polynomials. The second result has application to polynomial GCD computation and solving polynomial diophantine equations.

We generalize the definition of Yang-Baxter basis of type A Hecke algebra introduced by A.Lascoux, B.Leclerc and J.Y.Thibon (Letters in Math. Phys., 40 (1997), 75–90) to all the Lie types and prove their duality. As an application we give a solution to Casselman's problem on Iwahori fixed vectors of principal series representation of p-adic groups.

this is an extended abstract of the full version. We study n-vertex d-dimensional polytopes with at most one nonsimplex facet with, say, d + s vertices, called almost simplicial polytopes. We provide tight lower and upper bounds for the face numbers of these polytopes as functions of d, n and s, thus generalizing the classical Lower Bound Theorem by Barnette and Upper Bound Theorem by McMullen, which treat the case s = 0. We characterize the minimizers and provide examples of maximizers, for any d.

We enumerate the connected graphs that contain a linear number of edges with respect to the number of vertices. So far, only the first term of the asymptotics was known. Using analytic combinatorics, i.e. generating function manipulations, we derive the complete asymptotic expansion.

The geometric Littlewood-Richardson (LR) rule is a combinatorial algorithm for computing LR coefficients derived from degenerating the Richardson variety into a union of Schubert varieties in the Grassmannian. Such rules were first given by Vakil and later generalized by Coskun. In this paper we give a noncommutative version of the geometric LR rule. As a consequence, we establish a geometric explanation for the positivity of noncommutative LR coefficients in certain cases.

Motivated by a question of Duval and Reiner about higher Laplacians of simplicial complexes, we describe various relaxations of the defining axioms of matroid theory to obtain larger classes of simplicial complexes that contain pure shifted simplicial complexes. The resulting classes retain some of the matroid properties and allow us to classify matroid properties according to the relevant axioms needed to prove them. We illustrate this by discussing Tutte polynomials. Furthermore, we extend a conjecture of Stanley on h-vectors and provide evidence to show that the extension is better suited than matroids to study the conjecture.

We consider families of quasisymmetric functions with the property that if a symmetric function f is a positive sum of functions in one of these families, then f is necessarily a positive sum of Schur functions. Furthermore, in each of the families studied, we give a combinatorial description of the Schur coefficients of f. We organize six such families into a poset, where functions in higher families in the poset are always positive integer sums of functions in each of the lower families.

Let gcd(a, b) = 1. J. Olsson and D. Stanton proved that the maximum number of boxes in a simultaneous (a, b)-core is (a2 −1)(b2 −1) 24, and showed that this maximum is achieved by a unique core. P. Johnson combined Ehrhart theory with the polynomial method to prove D. Armstrong's conjecture that the expected number of boxes in a simultaneous (a, b)-core is (a−1)(b−1)(a+b+1) 24. We apply P. Johnson's method to compute the variance and third moment. By extending the definitions of “simultaneous cores” and “number of boxes” to affine Weyl groups, we give uniform generalizations of these formulae to simply-laced affine types. We further explain the appearance of the number 24 using the “strange formula” of H. Freudenthal and H. de Vries.

In this work, we construct elliptic analogues of the rook numbers and file numbers by attaching elliptic weights to the cells in a board. We show that our elliptic rook and file numbers satisfy elliptic extensions of corre- sponding factorization theorems which in the classical case were established by Goldman, Joichi and White and by Garsia and Remmel in the file number case. This factorization theorem can be used to define elliptic analogues of various kinds of Stirling numbers of the first and second kind as well as Abel numbers. We also give analogous results for matchings of graphs, elliptically extending the result of Haglund and Remmel.

We prove that the noncrossing partition lattices associated with the complex reflection groups G(d, d, n) for d, n ≥ 2 admit a decomposition into saturated chains that are symmetric about the middle ranks. A consequence of this result is that these lattices have the strong Sperner property, which asserts that the cardinality of the union of the k largest antichains does not exceed the sum of the k largest ranks for all k ≤ n. Subsequently, we use a computer to complete the proof that any noncrossing partition lattice associated with a well-generated complex reflection group is strongly Sperner, thus affirmatively answering a special case of a question of D. Armstrong. This was previously established only for the Coxeter groups of type A and B.

The problem of computing products of Schubert classes in the cohomology ring can be formulated as theproblem of expanding skew Schur polynomial into the basis of ordinary Schur polynomials. We reformulate theproblem of computing the structure constants of the Grothendieck ring of a Grassmannian variety with respect to itsbasis of Schubert structure sheaves in a similar way; we address the problem of expanding the generating functions forskew reverse-plane partitions into the basis of polynomials which are Hall-dual to stable Grothendieck polynomials. From this point of view, we produce a chain of bijections leading to Buch’s K-theoretic Littlewood-Richardson rule.

We introduce a Hopf algebra structure of subword complexes, including both finite and infinite types. We present an explicit cancellation free formula for the antipode using acyclic orientations of certain graphs, and show that this Hopf algebra induces a natural non-trivial sub-Hopf algebra on c-clusters in the theory of cluster algebras.

For a finite subgroup G of the special unitary group SU2, we study the centralizer algebra Zk(G) = EndG(V⊗k) of G acting on the k-fold tensor product of its defining representation V = C2. The McKay corre- spondence relates the representation theory of these groups to an associated affine Dynkin diagram, and we use this connection to study the structure and representation theory of Zk(G) via the combinatorics of the Dynkin diagram. When G equals the binary tetrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral group, we exhibit remarkable connections between Zk (G) and the Martin-Jones set partition algebras.

We introduce and study a special class of ideals over the semiring of tropical polynomials, which we calltropical ideals, with the goal of developing a useful and solid algebraic foundation for tropical geometry. We exploretheir rich combinatorial structure, and prove that they satisfy numerous properties analogous to classical ideals.

The totally nonnegative Grassmannian Gr≥0 k,n is the set of k-dimensional subspaces V of Rn whose nonzero Plucker coordinates all have the same sign. In their study of scattering amplitudes in N = 4 supersym- metric Yang-Mills theory, Arkani-Hamed and Trnka (2013) considered the image (called an amplituhedron) of Gr≥0 k,n under a linear map Z : Rn → Rr, where k ≤ r and the r × r minors of Z are all positive. One reason they required this positivity condition is to ensure that the map Gr≥0 k,n → Grk,r induced by Z is well defined, i.e. it takes everynelement of Gr≥0 k,n to a k-dimensional subspace of Rr. Lam (2015) gave a sufficient condition for the induced map Gr≥0 k,n → Grk,r to be well defined, in which case he called the image a Grassmann polytope. (In the case k = 1, Grassmann polytopes are just polytopes, and amplituhedra are cyclic polytopes.) We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the induced map Gr≥0 k,n → Grk,r to be well defined, in terms of sign variation. Using previous work we presented at FPSAC 2015, we obtain an equivalent condition in terms of the r × r minors of Z (assuming Z has rank r).

We provide a new succession rule (i.e. generating tree) associated with Schröder numbers, that interpolates between the known succession rules for Catalan and Baxter numbers. We define Schröder and Baxter generalizations of parallelogram polyominoes (called slicings) which grow according to these succession rules. We also exhibit Schröder subclasses of Baxter classes, namely a Schröder subset of triples of non-intersecting lattice paths, and a new Schröder subset of Baxter permutations.

The celebrated hook-length formula gives a product formula for the number of standard Young tableaux of a straight shape. In 2014, Naruse announced a more general formula for the number of standard Young tableaux of skew shapes as a positive sum over excited diagrams of products of hook-lengths. We give two q-analogues of Naruse's formula for the skew Schur functions and for counting reverse plane partitions of skew shapes. We also apply our results to border strip shapes and their generalizations.

We prove that the external activity complex Act<(M) of a matroid is shellable. In fact, we show that every linear extension of Las Vergnas's external/internal order <ext/int on M provides a shelling of Act<(M). We also show that every linear extension of Las Vergnas's internal order <int on M provides a shelling of the independence complex IN(M). As a corollary, Act<(M) and M have the same h-vector. We prove that, after removing its cone points, the external activity complex is contractible if M contains U3,1 as a minor, and a sphere otherwise.

For any Coxeter system (W, S) of rank n, we introduce an abstract boolean complex (simplicial poset) of dimension 2n − 1 which contains the Coxeter complex as a relative subcomplex. Faces are indexed by triples (J,w,K), where J and K are subsets of the set S of simple generators, and w is a minimal length representative for the double parabolic coset WJ wWK . There is exactly one maximal face for each element of the group W . The complex is shellable and thin, which implies the complex is a sphere for the finite Coxeter groups. In this case, a natural refinement of the h-polynomial is given by the “two-sided” W -Eulerian polynomial, i.e., the generating function for the joint distribution of left and right descents in W .

We show that the density μ of the Smith normal form (SNF) of a random integer matrix exists and equals a product of densities μps of SNF over Z/psZ with p a prime and s some positive integer. Our approach is to connect the SNF of a matrix with the greatest common divisors (gcds) of certain polynomials of matrix entries, and develop the theory of multi-gcd distribution of polynomial values at a random integer vector. We also derive a formula for μps and determine the density μ for several interesting types of sets.

We present some results on the freeness or non freeness of some tridendriform algebras. In particular, we give a combinatorial proof of the freeness of WQSym, an algebra based on packed words, result already known with an algebraic proof. Then, we prove the non-freeness of an another tridendriform algebra, PQSym, a conjecture remained open. The method of these proofs is generalizable, in particular it has been used to prove the freeness of the dendriform algebra FQSym and the quadrialgebra of 2-permutations.

The main objects of noncrossing Catalan combinatorics associated to a finite Coxeter system are noncross- ing partitions, sortable elements, and cluster complexes. The first and the third of these have known Fuss–Catalan generalizations. We provide new viewpoints for these, introduce a corresponding generalization of sortable elements as elements in the positive Artin monoid, and show how this perspective ties together all three generalizations.

We define two refinements of the skew length statistic on simultaneous core partitions. The first one relies on hook lengths and is used to prove a refined version of the theorem stating that the skew length is invariant under conjugation of the core. The second one is equivalent to a generalisation of Shi tableaux to the rational level of Catalan combinatorics. We prove that the rational Shi tableau is injective. Moreover we present a uniform definition of the rational Shi tableau for Weyl groups and conjecture injectivity in the general case.

Tanglegrams are a class of graphs arising in computer science and in biological research on cospeciation and coevolution. They are formed by identifying the leaves of two rooted binary trees. The embedding of the trees in the plane is irrelevant for this application. We give an explicit formula to count the number of distinct binary rooted tanglegrams with n matched leaves, along with a simple asymptotic formula and an algorithm for choosing a tanglegram uniformly at random. The enumeration formula is then extended to count the number of tangled chains of binary trees of any length. This work gives a new formula for the number of binary trees with n leaves. Several open problems and conjectures are included along with pointers to several followup articles that have already appeared.

We study the enumeration of diagonally and antidiagonally symmetric alternating sign matrices (DAS- ASMs) of fixed odd order by introducing a case of the six-vertex model whose configurations are in bijection with such matrices. The model involves a grid graph on a triangle, with bulk and boundary weights which satisfy the Yang– Baxter and reflection equations. We obtain a general expression for the partition function of this model as a sum of two determinantal terms, and show that at a certain point each of these terms reduces to a Schur function. We are then able to prove a conjecture of Robbins from the mid 1980's that the total number of (2n + 1) × (2n + 1) DASASMs is∏n (3i)! ,andaconjectureofStroganovfrom2008thattheratiobetweenthenumbersof(2n+1)×(2n+1) i=0 (n+i)! DASASMs with central entry −1 and 1 is n/(n + 1). Among the several product formulae for the enumeration of symmetric alternating sign matrices which were conjectured in the 1980's, that for odd-order DASASMs is the last to have been proved.

Parabolic subgroups WI of Coxeter systems (W,S) and their ordinary and double cosets W/WI and WI\W/WJ appear in many contexts in combinatorics and Lie theory, including the geometry and topology of generalized flag varieties and the symmetry groups of regular polytopes. The set of ordinary cosets wWI , for I ⊆ S, forms the Coxeter complex of W , and is well-studied. In this extended abstract, we look at a less studied object: the set of all double cosets WIwWJ for I,J ⊆ S. Each double coset can be presented by many different triples (I, w, J). We describe what we call the lex-minimal presentation and prove that there exists a unique such choice for each double coset. Lex-minimal presentations can be enumerated via a finite automaton depending on the Coxeter graph for (W, S). In particular, we present a formula for the number of parabolic double cosets with a fixed minimal element when W is the symmetric group Sn. In that case, parabolic subgroups are also known as Young subgroups. Our formula is almost always linear time computable in n, and the formula can be generalized to any Coxeter group.

Following the lead of Stanley and Gessel, we consider a linear map which associates to an acyclic directed graph (or a poset) a quasi-symmetric function. The latter is naturally defined as multivariate generating series of non-decreasing functions on the graph (or of P -partitions of the poset).We describe the kernel of this linear map, using a simple combinatorial operation that we call cyclic inclusion- exclusion. Our result also holds for the natural non-commutative analog and for the commutative and non-commutative restrictions to bipartite graphs.

We compute the generating function of some families of reduced Kronecker coefficients. We give a combi- natorial interpretation for these coefficients in terms of plane partitions. This unexpected relation allows us to check that the saturation hypothesis holds for the reduced Kronecker coefficients of our families. We also compute the quasipolynomial that govern these families, specifying the degree and period. Moving to the setting of Kronecker co- efficients, these results imply some observations related to the rate of growth experienced by the families of Kronecker coefficients associated to the reduced Kronecker coefficients already studied.

Following the proof of the purity conjecture for weakly separated sets, recent years have revealed a variety of wider classes of pure domains in different settings. In this paper we show the purity for domains consisting of sets that are weakly separated from a pair of “generic” sets I and J. Our proof also gives a simple formula for the rank of these domains in terms of I and J. This is a new instance of the purity phenomenon which essentially differs from all previously known pure domains. We apply our result to calculate the cluster distance and to give lower bounds on the mutation distance between cluster variables in the cluster algebra structure on the coordinate ring of the Grassmannian. Using a linear projection that relates weak separation to the octahedron recurrence, we also find the exact mutation distances and cluster distances for a family of cluster variables.

In this extended abstract we present colored generalizations of the symmetric algebra and its Koszul dual, the exterior algebra. The symmetric group Sn acts on the multilinear components of these algebras. While Sn acts trivially on the multilinear components of the colored symmetric algebra, we use poset topology techniques to describe the representation on its Koszul dual. We introduce an Sn-poset of weighted subsets that we call the weighted boolean algebra and we prove that the multilinear components of the colored exterior algebra are Sn- isomorphic to the top cohomology modules of its maximal intervals. We show that the two colored Koszul dual algebras are Koszul in the sense of Priddy et al.

Consider the set Fn of factorizations of the full cycle (0 1 2 · · · n) ∈ S{0,1,...,n} into n transpositions. Write any such factorization (a1 b1) · · · (an bn) with all ai < bi to define its lower and upper sequences (a1, . . . , an) and (b1,...,bn), respectively. Remarkably, any factorization can be uniquely recovered from its lower (or upper) sequence. In fact, Biane (2002) showed that the simple map sending a factorization to its lower sequence is a bijection from Fn to the set Pn of parking functions of length n. Reversing this map to recover the factorization (and, hence, upper sequence) corresponding to a given lower sequence is nontrivial.

This extended abstract proves that the number of fully packed loop configurations whose link pattern consists of two noncrossing matchings separated by m nested arches is a polynomial in m. This was conjectured by Zuber (2004) and for large values of m proved by Caselli et al. (2004)

In this paper, we use the multivariate analytic techniques of Pemantle and Wilson to find asymptotic for- mulae for the coefficients of a broad class of multivariate generating functions with algebraic singularities. Flajolet and Odlyzko (1990) analyzed the coefficients of a class of univariate generating functions with algebraic singularities. These results have been extended to classes of multivariate generating functions by Gao and Richmond (1992) and Hwang (1996, 1998), in both cases by immediately reducing the multivariate case to the univariate case. Pemantle and Wilson (2013) outlined new multivariate analytic techniques and used them to analyze the coefficients of rational generating functions.

In this paper we introduce factorial characters for the classical groups and derive a number of central results. Classically, the factorial Schur function plays a fundamental role in traditional symmetric function theory and also in Schubert polynomial theory. Here we develop a parallel theory for the classical groups, offering combinatorial definitions of the factorial characters for the symplectic and orthogonal groups, and further establish flagged factorial Jacobi-Trudi identities and factorial Tokuyama identities, providing proofs in the symplectic case. These identities are established by manipulating determinants through the use of certain recurrence relations and by using lattice paths.

We define a new type of vertex coloring which generalizes vertex coloring in graphs, hypergraphs, andsimplicial complexes. To this coloring there is an associated symmetric function in noncommuting variables for whichwe give a deletion-contraction formula. In the case of graphs our symmetric function in noncommuting variablesagrees with the chromatic symmetric function in noncommuting variables of Gebhard and Sagan. Our vertex coloringis a special case of the scheduling problems defined by Breuer and Klivans. We show how the deletion-contractionlaw can be applied to scheduling problems.

Kenyon and Pemantle (2014) gave a formula for the entries of a square matrix in terms of connected principal and almost-principal minors. Each entry is an explicit Laurent polynomial whose terms are the weights of domino tilings of a half Aztec diamond. They conjectured an analogue of this parametrization for symmetric matrices, where the Laurent monomials are indexed by Catalan paths. In this paper we prove the Kenyon-Pemantle conjecture, and apply this to a statistics problem pioneered by Joe (2006). Correlation matrices are represented by an explicit bijection from the cube to the elliptope.

We prove that among all flag 3-manifolds on n vertices, the join of two circles with [n 2] and [n 2] vertices respectively is the unique maximizer of the face numbers. This solves the first case of a conjecture due to Lutz and Nevo. Further, we establish a sharp upper bound on the number of edges of flag 5-manifolds and characterize the cases of equality. We also show that the inequality part of the flag upper bound conjecture continues to hold for all flag 3-dimensional Eulerian complexes and characterize the cases of equality in this class.

We investigate quasisymmetric functions coming from combinatorial Hopf monoids. We show that these invariants arise naturally in Ehrhart theory, and that some of their specializations are Hilbert functions for relative simplicial complexes. This class of complexes, called forbidden composition complexes, also forms a Hopf monoid, thus demonstrating a link between Hopf algebras, Ehrhart theory, and commutative algebra. We also study various specializations of quasisymmetric functions.

In this work triangular puzzles that are composed of unit triangles with labelled edges are considered. To be more precise, the labelled unit triangles that we allow are on the one hand the puzzle pieces that compute Schubert calculus and on the other hand the flipped K-theory puzzle piece. The motivation for studying such puzzles comes from the fact that they correspond to a class of oriented triangular fully packed loop configurations. The main result that is presented is an expression for the number of these puzzles with a fixed boundary in terms of Littlewood- Richardson coefficients.

A new triple product formulae for plane partitions with bounded size of parts is derived from a combinato- rial interpretation of biorthogonal polynomials in terms of lattice paths. Biorthogonal polynomials which generalize the little q-Laguerre polynomials are introduced to derive a new triple product formula which recovers the classical generating function in a triple product by MacMahon and generalizes the trace-type generating functions in double products by Stanley and Gansner.

The Tutte polynomial for matroids is not directly applicable to polymatroids. For instance, deletion- contraction properties do not hold. We construct a polynomial for polymatroids which behaves similarly to the Tutte polynomial of a matroid, and in fact contains the same information as the Tutte polynomial when we restrict to matroids. This polynomial is constructed using lattice point counts in the Minkowski sum of the base polytope of a polymatroid and scaled copies of the standard simplex. We also show that, in the matroid case, our polynomial has coefficients of alternating sign, with a combinatorial interpretation closely tied to the Dawson partition.

We study random knotting by considering knot and link diagrams as decorated, (rooted) topological maps on spheres and sampling them with the counting measure on from sets of a fixed number of vertices n. We prove that random rooted knot diagrams are highly composite and hence almost surely knotted (this is the analogue of the Frisch-Wasserman-Delbruck conjecture) and extend this to unrooted knot diagrams by showing that almost all knot diagrams are asymmetric. The model is similar to one of Dunfield, et al.

We consider self-avoiding polygons in a restricted geometry, namely an infinite L × M tube in Z3. These polygons are subjected to a force f, parallel to the infinite axis of the tube. When f > 0 the force stretches the polygons, while when f < 0 the force is compressive. In this extended abstract we obtain and prove the asymptotic form of the free energy in the limit f → −∞. We conjecture that the f → −∞ asymptote is the same as the free energy of Hamiltonian polygons, which visit every vertex in a L × M × N box.

The generalized Lax conjecture asserts that each hyperbolicity cone is a linear slice of the cone of positive semidefinite matrices. Hyperbolic polynomials give rise to a class of (hyperbolic) matroids which properly contains the class of matroids representable over the complex numbers. This connection was used by the first author to construct counterexamples to algebraic (stronger) versions of the generalized Lax conjecture by considering a non- representable hyperbolic matroid. The Va ́mos matroid and a generalization of it are to this day the only known instances of non-representable hyperbolic matroids. We prove that the Non-Pappus and Non-Desargues matroids are non-representable hyperbolic matroids by exploiting a connection, due to Jordan, between Euclidean Jordan algebras and projective geometries. We further identify a large class of hyperbolic matroids that are parametrized by uniform hypergraphs and prove that many of them are non-representable. Finally we explore consequences to algebraic versions of the generalized Lax conjecture.

We describe a type B analog of the much studied Lie representation of the symmetric group. The nth Lie representation of Sn restricts to the regular representation of Sn−1, and our generalization mimics this property. Specifically, we construct a representation of the type B Weyl group Bn that restricts to the regular representation of Bn−1. We view both of these representations as coming from the internal zonotopal algebra of the Gale dual of the corresponding reflection arrangements.

We construct the affine version of the Fomin-Kirillov algebra, called the affine FK algebra, to investigatethe combinatorics of affine Schubert calculus for typeA. We introduce Murnaghan-Nakayama elements and Dunklelements in the affine FK algebra. We show that they are commutative as Bruhat operators, and the commutativealgebra generated by these operators is isomorphic to the cohomology of the affine flag variety. As a byproduct, weobtain Murnaghan-Nakayama rules both for the affine Schubert polynomials and affine Stanley symmetric functions. This enable us to expressk-Schur functions in terms of power sum symmetric functions. We also provide the defi-nition of the affine Schubert polynomials, polynomial representatives of the Schubert basis in the cohomology of theaffine flag variety.

A long-standing conjecture of Stanley states that every Cohen–Macaulay simplicial complex is partition- able. We disprove the conjecture by constructing an explicit counterexample. Due to a result of Herzog, Jahan and Yassemi, our construction also disproves the conjecture that the Stanley depth of a monomial ideal is always at least its depth.

We prove that the product of a monomial and a Demazure atom is a positive sum of Demazure atoms combinatorially. This result proves one particular case in a conjecture which provides an approach to a combinatorial proof of Schubert positivity property.

A fourientation of a graph G is a choice for each edge of the graph whether to orient that edge in either direction, leave it unoriented, or biorient it. We may naturally view fourientations as a mixture of subgraphs and graph orientations where unoriented and bioriented edges play the role of absent and present subgraph edges, respectively. Building on work of Backman and Hopkins (2015), we show that given a linear order and a reference orientation of the edge set, one can define activities for fourientations of G which allow for a new 12 variable expansion of the Tutte polynomial TG. Our formula specializes to both an orientation activities expansion of TG due to Las Vergnas (1984) and a generalized activities expansion of TG due to Gordon and Traldi (1990).

In their 1987 paper Kraskiewicz and Pragacz defined certain modules, which we call KP modules, over the upper triangular Lie algebra whose characters are Schubert polynomials. In a previous work the author showed that the tensor product of Kraskiewicz-Pragacz modules always has KP filtration, i.e. a filtration whose each successive quotients are isomorphic to KP modules. In this paper we explicitly construct such filtrations for certain special cases of these tensor product modules, namely Sw Sd(Ki) and Sw Vd(Ki), corresponding to Pieri and dual Pieri rules for Schubert polynomials.

Goulden and Jackson (1996) introduced, using Jack symmetric functions, some multivariate generating series ψ(x, y, z; t, 1 + β) that might be interpreted as a continuous deformation of the rooted hypermap generating series. They made the following conjecture: coefficients of ψ(x, y, z; t, 1+β) are polynomials in β with nonnegative integer coefficients. We prove partially this conjecture, nowadays called b-conjecture, by showing that coefficients of ψ(x, y, z; t, 1 + β) are polynomials in β with rational coefficients. Until now, it was only known that they are rational functions of β. A key step of the proof is a strong factorization property of Jack polynomials when α → 0 that may be of independent interest.

In this paper, we introduce therhombic alternative tableaux, whose weight generating functions providecombinatorial formulae to compute the steady state probabilities of the two-species ASEP. In the ASEP, there aretwo species of particles, oneheavyand onelight, on a one-dimensional finite lattice with open boundaries, and theparametersα,β, andqdescribe the hopping probabilities. The rhombic alternative tableaux are enumerated by theLah numbers, which also enumerate certainassembl ́ees of permutations. We describe a bijection between the rhombicalternative tableaux and these assembl ́ees. We also provide an insertion algorithm that gives a weight generatingfunction for the assemb ́ees. Combined, these results give a bijective proof for the weight generating function for therhombic alternative tableaux.

It is known that the number of minimal factorizations of the long cycle in the symmetric group into a product of k cycles of given lengths has a very simple formula: it is nk−1 where n is the rank of the underlying symmetric group and k is the number of factors. In particular, this is nn−2 for transposition factorizations. The goal of this work is to prove a multivariate generalization of this result. As a byproduct, we get a multivariate analog of Postnikov's hook length formula for trees, and a refined enumeration of final chains of noncrossing partitions.

We investigate the combinatorics of the symmetry relation H μ(x; q, t) = H μ∗ (x; t, q) on the transformed Macdonald polynomials, from the point of view of the combinatorial formula of Haglund, Haiman, and Loehr in terms of the inv and maj statistics on Young diagram fillings. By generalizing the Carlitz bijection on permutations, we provide a purely combinatorial proof of the relation in the case of Hall-Littlewood polynomials (q = 0) for the coefficients of the square-free monomials in the variables x. Our work in this case relates the Macdonald inv and maj statistics to the monomial basis of the modules Rμ studied by Garsia and Procesi. We also provide a new proof for the full Macdonald relation in the case when μ is a hook shape.