Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science |

Consider the triangulations of a convex polygon with $n$ vertices. In 1988, Daniel Sleator, Robert Tarjan, and William Thurston have shown that the flip distance of two such triangulations is at most $2n-10$ when $n$ is greater than 12 and that this bound is sharp when $n$ is large enough. They also conjecture that `"large enough'' means greater than 12. A proof of this conjecture was recently announced by the author. A sketch of this proof is given here, with emphasis on the intuitions underlying the construction of lower bounds on the flip distance of two triangulations.

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Constellations and hypermaps generalize combinatorial maps, $\textit{i.e.}$ embedding of graphs in a surface, in terms of factorization of permutations. In this paper, we extend a result of Jackson and Visentin (1990) on an enumerative relation between quadrangulations and bipartite quadrangulations. We show a similar relation between hypermaps and constellations by generalizing a result in the original paper on factorization of characters. Using this enumerative relation, we recover a result on the asymptotic behavior of hypermaps of Chapuy (2009).

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We present a uniform construction of tensor products of one-column Kirillov–Reshetikhin (KR) crystals in all untwisted affine types, which uses a generalization of the Lakshmibai–Seshadri paths (in the theory of the Littelmann path model). This generalization is based on the graph on parabolic cosets of a Weyl group known as the parabolic quantum Bruhat graph. A related model is the so-called quantum alcove model. The proof is based on two lifts of the parabolic quantum Bruhat graph: to the Bruhat order on the affine Weyl group and to Littelmann's poset on level-zero weights. Our construction leads to a simple calculation of the energy function. It also implies the equality between a Macdonald polynomial specialized at $t=0$ and the graded character of a tensor product of KR modules.

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We develop a new method for studying the asymptotics of symmetric polynomials of representation–theoretic origin as the number of variables tends to infinity. Several applications of our method are presented: We prove a number of theorems concerning characters of infinite–dimensional unitary group and their $q$–deformations. We study the behavior of uniformly random lozenge tilings of large polygonal domains and find the GUE–eigenvalues distribution in the limit. We also investigate similar behavior for Alternating Sign Matrices (equivalently, six–vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions). Finally, we compute the asymptotic expansion of certain observables in the $O(n=1)$ dense loop model.

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This article investigates combinatorial properties of non-ambiguous trees. These objects we define may be seen either as binary trees drawn on a grid with some constraints, or as a subset of the tree-like tableaux previously defined by Aval, Boussicault and Nadeau. The enumeration of non-ambiguous trees satisfying some additional constraints allows us to give elegant combinatorial proofs of identities due to Carlitz, and to Ehrenborg and Steingrímsson. We also provide a hook formula to count the number of non-ambiguous trees with a given underlying tree. Finally, we use non-ambiguous trees to describe a very natural bijection between parallelogram polyominoes and binary trees.

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Deodhar introduced his decomposition of partial flag varieties as a tool for understanding Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. The Deodhar decomposition of the Grassmannian is also useful in the context of soliton solutions to the KP equation, as shown by Kodama and the second author. Deodhar components $S_D$ of the Grassmannian are in bijection with certain tableaux $D$ called $\textit{Go-diagrams}$, and each component is isomorphic to $(\mathbb{K}^*)^a ×\mathbb{K})^b$ for some non-negative integers $a$ and $b$. Our main result is an explicit parameterization of each Deodhar component in the Grassmannian in terms of networks. More specifically, from a Go-diagram $D$ we construct a weighted network $N_D$ and its $\textit{weight matrix}$ $W_D$, whose entries enumerate directed paths in $N_D$. By letting the weights in the network vary over $\mathbb{K}$ or $\mathbb{K} ^*$ as appropriate, one gets a parametrization of the Deodhar component $S_D$. One application of such a parametrization is that one may immediately determine which Plücker coordinates are vanishing and nonvanishing, by using the Lindstrom-Gessel-Viennot Lemma. We also give a (minimal) characterization of each Deodhar component in terms of Plücker coordinates.

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We study the vector spaces and integer lattices of cuts and flows of an arbitrary finite CW complex, and their relationships to its critical group and related invariants. Our results extend the theory of cuts and flows in graphs, in particular the work of Bacher, de la Harpe and Nagnibeda. We construct explicit bases for the cut and flow spaces, interpret their coefficients topologically, and describe sufficient conditions for them to be integral bases of the cut and flow lattices. Second, we determine the precise relationships between the discriminant groups of the cut and flow lattices and the higher critical and cocritical groups; these are expressed as short exact sequences with error terms corresponding to torsion (co)homology. As an application, we generalize a result of Kotani and Sunada to give bounds for the complexity, girth, and connectivity of a complex in terms of Hermite's constant.

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We present two simple descriptions of the denominator vectors of the cluster variables of a cluster algebra of finite type, with respect to any initial cluster seed: one in terms of the compatibility degrees between almost positive roots defined by S. Fomin and A. Zelevinsky, and the other in terms of the root function of a certain subword complex. These descriptions only rely on linear algebra, and provide simple proofs of the known fact that the $d$-vector of any non-initial cluster variable with respect to any initial cluster seed has non-negative entries and is different from zero.

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The descent set of an oscillating (or up-down) tableau is introduced. This descent set plays the same role in the representation theory of the symplectic groups as the descent set of a standard tableau plays in the representation theory of the general linear groups. In particular, we show that the descent set is preserved by Sundaram's correspondence. This gives a direct combinatorial interpretation of the branching rules for the defining representations of the symplectic groups; equivalently, for the Frobenius character of the action of a symmetric group on an isotypic subspace in a tensor power of the defining representation of a symplectic group.

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We define and study a recurrence relation in $\mathbb{Z}^3$, called the hexahedron recurrence, which is similar to the octahedron recurrence (Hirota bilinear difference equation) and cube recurrence (Miwa equation). Like these examples, solutions to the hexahedron recurrence are partition functions for configurations on a certain graph, and have a natural interpretation in terms of cluster algebras. We give an explicit correspondence between monomials in the Laurent expansions arising in the recurrence with certain double-dimer configurations of a graph. We compute limit shapes for the corresponding double-dimer configurations. The Kashaev difference equation arising in the Ising model star-triangle relation is a special case of the hexahedron recurrence. In particular this reveals the cluster nature underlying the Ising model. The above relation allows us to prove a Laurent phenomenon for the Kashaev difference equation.

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We consider the Ehrhart $h^*$-vector for the hypersimplex. It is well-known that the sum of the $h_i^*$ is the normalized volume which equals an Eulerian number. The main result is a proof of a conjecture by R. Stanley which gives an interpretation of the $h^*_i$ coefficients in terms of descents and excedances. Our proof is geometric using a careful book-keeping of a shelling of a unimodular triangulation. We generalize this result to other closely related polytopes.

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We show the $\mathrm{cd}$-index exists for Whitney stratified manifolds by extending the notion of a graded poset to that of a quasi-graded poset. This is a poset endowed with an order-preserving rank function and a weighted zeta function. This allows us to generalize the classical notion of Eulerianness, and obtain a $\mathrm{cd}$-index in the quasi-graded poset arena. We also extend the semi-suspension operation to that of embedding a complex in the boundary of a higher dimensional ball and study the shelling components of the simplex.

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An element of a Coxeter group $W$ is fully commutative if any two of its reduced decompositions are related by a series of transpositions of adjacent commuting generators. These elements were extensively studied by Stembridge in the finite case. In this work we deal with any finite or affine Coxeter group $W$, and we enumerate fully commutative elements according to their Coxeter length. Our approach consists in encoding these elements by various classes of lattice walks, and we then use recursive decompositions of these walks in order to obtain the desired generating functions. In type $A$, this reproves a theorem of Barcucci et al.; in type $\tilde{A}$, it simplifies and refines results of Hanusa and Jones. For all other finite and affine groups, our results are new.

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We introduce the notion of a matroid $M$ over a commutative ring $R$, assigning to every subset of the ground set an $R$-module according to some axioms. When $R$ is a field, we recover matroids. When $R=\mathbb{Z}$, and when $R$ is a DVR, we get (structures which contain all the data of) quasi-arithmetic matroids, and valuated matroids, respectively. More generally, whenever $R$ is a Dedekind domain, we extend the usual properties and operations holding for matroids (e.g., duality), and we compute the Tutte-Grothendieck group of matroids over $R$.

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New formulas for the $n^{\mathrm{th}}$ moment $\mu_n(a,b,c,d;q)$ of the Askey-Wilson polynomials are given. These are derived using analytic techniques, and by considering three combinatorial models for the moments: Motzkin paths, matchings, and staircase tableaux. A related positivity theorem is given and another one is conjectured.

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The notion of $r$-stackedness for simplicial polytopes was introduced by McMullen and Walkup in 1971 as a generalization of stacked polytopes. In this paper, we define the $r$-stackedness for triangulated homology manifolds and study their basic properties. In addition, we find a new necessary condition for face vectors of triangulated manifolds when all the vertex links are polytopal.

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An action on order ideals of posets considered by Fon-Der-Flaass is analyzed in the case of posets arising from minuscule representations of complex simple Lie algebras. For these minuscule posets, it is shown that the Fon-Der-Flaass action exhibits the cyclic sieving phenomenon, as defined by Reiner, Stanton, and White. A uniform proof is given by investigation of a bijection due to Stembridge between order ideals of minuscule posets and fully commutative Weyl group elements. This bijection is proven to be equivariant with respect to a conjugate of the Fon-Der-Flaass action and an arbitrary Coxeter element. If $P$ is a minuscule poset, it is shown that the Fon-Der-Flaass action on order ideals of the Cartesian product $P \times [2]$ also exhibits the cyclic sieving phenomenon, only the proof is by appeal to the classification of minuscule posets and is not uniform.

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Generalizing the notion of a vexillary permutation, we introduce a filtration of $S_{\infty}$ by the number of Edelman-Greene tableaux of a permutation, and show that each filtration level is characterized by avoiding a finite set of patterns. In doing so, we show that if $w$ is a permutation containing $v$ as a pattern, then there is an injection from the set of Edelman-Greene tableaux of $v$ to the set of Edelman-Greene tableaux of $w$ which respects inclusion of shapes. We also consider the set of permutations whose Edelman-Greene tableaux have distinct shapes, and show that it is closed under taking patterns.

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This paper introduces a variation on the binomial coefficient that depends on a poset and interpolates between $q$-binomials and 1-binomials: a total order gives the usual $q$-binomial, and a poset with no relations gives the usual binomial coefficient. These coefficients arise naturally in the study of supercharacters of the finite groups of unipotent upper-triangular matrices, whose representation theory is dictated by the combinatorics of set partitions. In particular, we find a natural set of modules for these groups, whose characters have degrees given by $q$-binomials, and whose decomposition in terms of supercharacters are given by poset binomial coefficients. This results in a non-trivial family of formulas relating poset binomials to the usual $q$-binomials.

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The Little map and the Edelman-Greene insertion algorithm, a generalization of the Robinson-Schensted correspondence, are both used for enumerating the reduced decompositions of an element of the symmetric group. We show the Little map factors through Edelman-Greene insertion and establish new results about each map as a consequence. In particular, we resolve some conjectures of Lam and Little.

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We address the enumeration of $p$-valent planar maps equipped with a spanning forest, with a weight $z$ per face and a weight $u$ per component of the forest. Equivalently, we count regular maps equipped with a spanning tree, with a weight $z$ per face and a weight $\mu:=u+1$ per internally active edge, in the sense of Tutte. This enumeration problem corresponds to the limit $q \rightarrow 0$ of the $q$-state Potts model on the (dual) $p$-angulations. Our approach is purely combinatorial. The generating function, denoted by $F(z,u)$, is expressed in terms of a pair of series defined by an implicit system involving doubly hypergeometric functions. We derive from this system that $F(z,u)$ is $\textit{differentially algebraic}$, that is, satisfies a differential equation (in $z$) with polynomial coefficients in $z$ and $u$. This has recently been proved for the more general Potts model on 3-valent maps, but via a much more involved and less combinatorial proof. For $u \geq -1$, we study the singularities of $F(z,u)$ and the corresponding asymptotic behaviour of its $n^{\mathrm{th}}$ coefficient. For $u > 0$, we find the standard asymptotic behaviour of planar maps, with a subexponential factor $n^{-5/2}$. At $u=0$ we witness a phase transition with a factor $n^{-3}$. When $u \in[-1,0)$, we obtain an extremely unusual behaviour in $n^{-3}/(\log n)^2$. To our knowledge, this is a new ''universality class'' of planar maps.

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A poset is $(3+1)$-free if it does not contain the disjoint union of chains of length 3 and 1 as an induced subposet. These posets are the subject of the $(3+1)$-free conjecture of Stanley and Stembridge. Recently, Lewis and Zhang have enumerated $\textit{graded}$ $(3+1)$-free posets, but until now the general enumeration problem has remained open. We enumerate all $(3+1)$-free posets by giving a decomposition into bipartite graphs, and obtain generating functions for $(3+1)$-free posets with labelled or unlabelled vertices.

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We introduce a new basis of the non-commutative symmetric functions whose elements have Schur functions as their commutative images. Dually, we build a basis of the quasi-symmetric functions which expand positively in the fundamental quasi-symmetric functions and decompose Schur functions according to a signed combinatorial formula.

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The goal of this paper is to introduce an algebraic structure on the space spanned by affine descent classes of a Weyl group, by analogy and in relation to the structure carried by ordinary descent classes. The latter classes span a subalgebra of the group algebra, Solomon's descent algebra. We show that the former span a left module over this algebra. The structure is obtained from geometric considerations involving hyperplane arrangements. We provide a combinatorial model for the case of the symmetric group.

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We propose a new approach to study the Kronecker coefficients by using the Schur–Weyl duality between the symmetric group and the partition algebra.

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We introduce explicit combinatorial interpretations for the coefficients in some of the transition matrices relating to skew Hall-Littlewood polynomials $P_{\lambda / \mu}(x;t)$ and Hivert's quasisymmetric Hall-Littlewood polynomials $G_{\gamma}(x;t)$. More specifically, we provide the following: 1. $G_{\gamma}$-expansions of the $P_{\lambda}$, the monomial quasisymmetric functions, and Gessel's fundamental quasisymmetric functions $F_{\alpha}$, and 2. an expansion of the $P_{\lambda / \mu}$ in terms of the $F_{\alpha}$. The $F_{\alpha}$ expansion of the $P_{\lambda / \mu}$ is facilitated by introducing the set of $\textit{starred tableaux}$. In the full version of the article we also provide $G_{\gamma}$-expansions of the quasisymmetric Schur functions and the peak quasisymmetric functions of Stembridge.

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Let $(W, S)$ be a Coxeter system. A $W$-graph is an encoding of a representation of the corresponding Iwahori-Hecke algebra. Especially important examples include the $W$-graph corresponding to the action of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra on the Kazhdan-Lusztig basis as well as this graph's strongly connected components (cells). In 2008, Stembridge identified some common features of the Kazhdan-Lusztig graphs ("admissibility'') and gave combinatorial rules for detecting admissible $W$-graphs. He conjectured, and checked up to $n=9$, that all admissible $A_n$-cells are Kazhdan-Lusztig cells. The current paper provides a possible first step toward a proof of the conjecture. More concretely, we prove that the connected subgraphs of $A_n$-cells consisting of simple (i.e. directed both ways) edges do fit into the Kazhdan-Lusztig cells.

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An $\textit{increasing tableau}$ is a semistandard tableau with strictly increasing rows and columns. It is well known that the Catalan numbers enumerate both rectangular standard Young tableaux of two rows and also Dyck paths. We generalize this to a bijection between rectangular 2-row increasing tableaux and small Schröder paths. Using the jeu de taquin for increasing tableaux of [Thomas–Yong '09], we then present a new instance of the cyclic sieving phenomenon of [Reiner–Stanton–White '04].

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The main purpose of this paper is to show that the multiplication of a Schubert polynomial of finite type $A$ by a Schur function can be understood from the multiplication in the space of dual $k$-Schur functions. Using earlier work by the second author, we encode both problems by means of quasisymmetric functions. On the Schubert vs. Schur side, we study the $r$-Bruhat order given by Bergeron-Sottile, along with certain operators associated to this order. On the other side, we connect this poset with a graph on dual $k$-Schur functions given by studying the affine grassmannian order of Lam-Lapointe-Morse-Shimozono. Also, we define operators associated to the graph on dual $k$-Schur functions which are analogous to the ones given for the Schubert vs. Schur problem.

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We are interested in finding an explicit bijection between two families of combinatorial objects: Gog and Magog triangles. These two families are particular classes of Gelfand-Tsetlin triangles and are respectively in bijection with alternating sign matrices (ASM) and totally symmetric self complementary plane partitions (TSSCPP). For this purpose, we introduce left Gog and GOGAm trapezoids. We conjecture that these two families of trapezoids are equienumerated and we give an explicit bijection between the trapezoids with one or two diagonals.

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Just as the power series of $\log (1+X)$ is the analytical substitutional inverse of the series of $\exp (X)-1$, the (virtual) combinatorial species, $\mathrm{Lg} (1+X)$, is the combinatorial substitutional inverse of the combinatorial species, $E(X)-1$, of non-empty finite sets. This $\textit{combinatorial logarithm}$, $\mathrm{Lg} (1+X)$, has been introduced by A. Joyal in 1986 by making use of an iterative scheme. Given a species $F(X)$ (with $F(0)=1$), one of its main applications is to express the species, $F^{\mathrm{c}}(X)$, of $\textit{connected}$ $F$-structures through the formula $F{\mathrm{c}} = \mathrm{Lg} (F) = \mathrm{Lg} (1+F_+)$ where $F_+$ denotes the species of non-empty $F$-structures. Since its creation, equivalent descriptions of the combinatorial logarithm have been given by other combinatorialists (G. L., I. Gessel, J. Li), but its exact decomposition into irreducible components (molecular expansion) remained unclear. The main goal of the present work is to fill this gap by computing explicitly the molecular expansion of the combinatorial logarithm and of $-\mathrm{Lg}(1-X)$, a "cousin'' of the tensorial species, $\mathrm{Lie}(X)$, of free Lie algebras.

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The $\textit{simplicial rook graph}$ $SR(d,n)$ is the graph whose vertices are the lattice points in the $n$th dilate of the standard simplex in $\mathbb{R}^d$, with two vertices adjacent if they differ in exactly two coordinates. We prove that the adjacency and Laplacian matrices of $SR(3,n)$ have integral spectra for every $n$. We conjecture that $SR(d,n)$ is integral for all $d$ and $n$, and give a geometric construction of almost all eigenvectors in terms of characteristic vectors of lattice permutohedra. For $n \leq \binom{d}{2}$, we give an explicit construction of smallest-weight eigenvectors in terms of rook placements on Ferrers diagrams. The number of these eigenvectors appears to satisfy a Mahonian distribution.

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Given a finite list of vectors $X \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$, one can define the box spline $B_X$. Box splines are piecewise polynomial functions that are used in approximation theory. They are also interesting from a combinatorial point of view and many of their properties solely depend on the structure of the matroid defined by the list $X$. The support of the box spline is the zonotope $Z(X)$. We show that if the list $X$ is totally unimodular, any real-valued function defined on the set of lattice points in the interior of $Z(X)$ can be extended to a function on $Z(X)$ of the form $p(D)B_X$ in a unique way, where $p(D)$ is a differential operator that is contained in the so-called internal $\mathcal{P}$-space. This was conjectured by Olga Holtz and Amos Ron. We also point out connections between this interpolation problem and matroid theory, including a deletion-contraction decomposition.

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In this paper we give a new proof of the universality of the Tutte polynomial for matroids. This proof uses appropriate characters of Hopf algebra of matroids, algebra introduced by Schmitt (1994). We show that these Hopf algebra characters are solutions of some differential equations which are of the same type as the differential equations used to describe the renormalization group flow in quantum field theory. This approach allows us to also prove, in a different way, a matroid Tutte polynomial convolution formula published by Kook, Reiner and Stanton (1999). This FPSAC contribution is an extended abstract.

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The $(q,r)$-Eulerian polynomials are the $(\mathrm{maj-exc, fix, exc})$ enumerative polynomials of permutations. Using Shareshian and Wachs' exponential generating function of these Eulerian polynomials, Chung and Graham proved two symmetrical $q$-Eulerian identities and asked for bijective proofs. We provide such proofs using Foata and Han's three-variable statistic $(\mathrm{inv-lec, pix, lec})$. We also prove a new recurrence formula for the $(q,r)$-Eulerian polynomials and study a $q$-analogue of Chung and Graham's restricted Eulerian polynomials. In particular, we obtain a symmetrical identity for these restricted $q$-Eulerian polynomials with a combinatorial proof.

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The $d$-dimensional simplicial, terminal, and reflexive polytopes with at least $3d-2$ vertices are classified. In particular, it turns out that all of them are smooth Fano polytopes. This improves previous results of Casagrande (2006) and Øbro (2008). Smooth Fano polytopes play a role in algebraic geometry and mathematical physics. This text is an extended abstract of Assarf et al. (2012).

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We introduce new combinatorial objects, the interval-posets, that encode intervals of the Tamari lattice. We then find a combinatorial interpretation of the bilinear form that appears in the functional equation of Tamari intervals described by Chapoton. Thus, we retrieve this functional equation and prove that the polynomial recursively computed from the bilinear form on each tree $T$ counts the number of trees smaller than $T$ in the Tamari order.

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Weighted hypertrees have been used by C. Jensen, J. McCammond, and J. Meier to compute some Euler characteristics in group theory. We link them to decorated hypertrees and 2-coloured rooted trees. After the enumeration of pointed and non-pointed types of decorated hypertrees, we compute the character for the action of the symmetric group on these hypertrees.

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$\textit{Adinkras}$ are graphical tools created for the study of supersymmetry representations. Besides having inherent interest for physicists, the study of adinkras has already shown connections with coding theory and Clifford algebras. Furthermore, adinkras offer many natural and accessible mathematical problems of combinatorial nature. We present the foundations for a mathematical audience, make new connections to other fields (homological algebra, poset theory, and polytopes), and solve some of these problems. Original results include the enumeration of all hypercube adinkras through dimension 5, the enumeration of odd dashings of adinkras for any dimension, and a connection between rankings and the chromatic polynomial for certain graphs.

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In a recent paper, Diaconis, Ram and I constructed Markov chains using the coproduct-then-product map of a combinatorial Hopf algebra. We presented an algorithm for diagonalising a large class of these "Hopf-power chains", including the Gilbert-Shannon-Reeds model of riffle-shuffling of a deck of cards and a rock-breaking model. A very restrictive condition from that paper is removed in my thesis, and this extended abstract focuses on one application of the improved theory. Here, I use a new technique of lumping Hopf-power chains to show that the Hopf-power chain on the algebra of quasisymmetric functions is the induced chain on descent sets under riffle-shuffling. Moreover, I relate its right and left eigenfunctions to Garsia-Reutenauer idempotents and ribbon characters respectively, from which I recover an analogous result of Diaconis and Fulman (2012) concerning the number of descents under riffle-shuffling.

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We provide exact and asymptotic counting formulas for five singular lattice path models in the quarter plane. Furthermore, we prove that these models have a non D-finite generating function.

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Root-theoretic Young diagrams are a conceptual framework to discuss existence of a root-system uniform and manifestly non-negative combinatorial rule for Schubert calculus. Our main results use them to obtain formulas for (co)adjoint varieties of classical Lie type. This case is the simplest after the previously solved (co)minuscule family. Yet our formulas possess both uniform and non-uniform features.

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We show that given a poset $P$ and and a subposet $Q$, the integer points obtained by restricting linear extensions of $P$ to $Q$ can be explained via integer lattice points of a generalized permutohedron.

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For an arbitrary Coxeter group $W$, David Speyer and Nathan Reading defined Cambrian semilattices $C_{\gamma}$ as certain sub-semilattices of the weak order on $W$. In this article, we define an edge-labelling using the realization of Cambrian semilattices in terms of $\gamma$-sortable elements, and show that this is an EL-labelling for every closed interval of $C_{\gamma}$. In addition, we use our labelling to show that every finite open interval in a Cambrian semilattice is either contractible or spherical, and we characterize the spherical intervals, generalizing a result by Nathan Reading.

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We give an intrinsic proof of a conjecture of Brenti that all the roots of the Eulerian polynomial of type $D$ are real and a proof of a conjecture of Dilks, Petersen, and Stembridge that all the roots of the affine Eulerian polynomial of type $B$ are real, as well.

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We consider a deformation of Kerov character polynomials, linked to Jack symmetric functions. It has been introduced recently by M. Lassalle, who formulated several conjectures on these objects, suggesting some underlying combinatorics. We give a partial result in this direction, showing that some quantities are polynomials in the Jack parameter $\alpha$ with prescribed degree. Our result has several interesting consequences in various directions. Firstly, we give a new proof of the fact that the coefficients of Jack polynomials expanded in the monomial or power-sum basis depend polynomially in $\alpha$. Secondly, we describe asymptotically the shape of random Young diagrams under some deformation of Plancherel measure.

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The Hecke algebra of the pair $(\mathcal{S}_{2n}, \mathcal{B}_n)$, where $\mathcal{B}_n$ is the hyperoctahedral subgroup of $\mathcal{S}_{2n}$, was introduced by James in 1961. It is a natural analogue of the center of the symmetric group algebra. In this paper, we give a polynomiality property of its structure coefficients. Our main tool is a combinatorial universal algebra which projects on the Hecke algebra of $(\mathcal{S}_{2n}, \mathcal{B}_n)$ for every $n$. To build it, we introduce new objects called partial bijections.

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We give noncommutative versions of the Redfield-Pólya theorem in $\mathrm{WSym}$, the algebra of word symmetric functions, and in other related combinatorial Hopf algebras.

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The action of the symmetric group $S_n$ on the set $\mathrm{Park}_n$ of parking functions of size $n$ has received a great deal of attention in algebraic combinatorics. We prove that the action of $S_n$ on $\mathrm{Park}_n$ extends to an action of $S_{n+1}$. More precisely, we construct a graded $S_{n+1}$-module $V_n$ such that the restriction of $V_n$ to $S_n$ is isomorphic to $\mathrm{Park}_n$. We describe the $S_n$-Frobenius characters of the module $V_n$ in all degrees and describe the $S_{n+1}$-Frobenius characters of $V_n$ in extreme degrees. We give a bivariate generalization $V_n^{(\ell, m)}$ of our module $V_n$ whose representation theory is governed by a bivariate generalization of Dyck paths. A Fuss generalization of our results is a special case of this bivariate generalization.

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We give closed combinatorial product formulas for Kazhdan–Lusztig poynomials and their parabolic analogue of type $q$ in the case of boolean elements, introduced in [M. Marietti, Boolean elements in Kazhdan–Lusztig theory, J. Algebra 295 (2006)], in Coxeter groups whose Coxeter graph is a tree. Such formulas involve Catalan numbers and use a combinatorial interpretation of the Coxeter graph of the group. In the case of classical Weyl groups, this combinatorial interpretation can be restated in terms of statistics of (signed) permutations. As an application of the formulas, we compute the intersection homology Poincaré polynomials of the Schubert varieties of boolean elements.

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Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a minor-closed class of labelled graphs, and let $G_n$ be a random graph sampled uniformly from the set of n-vertex graphs of $\mathcal{A}$. When $n$ is large, what is the probability that $G_n$ is connected? How many components does it have? How large is its biggest component? Thanks to the work of McDiarmid and his collaborators, these questions are now solved when all excluded minors are 2-connected. Using exact enumeration, we study a collection of classes $\mathcal{A}$ excluding non-2-connected minors, and show that their asymptotic behaviour is sometimes rather different from the 2-connected case. This behaviour largely depends on the nature of the dominant singularity of the generating function $C(z)$ that counts connected graphs of $\mathcal{A}$. We classify our examples accordingly, thus taking a first step towards a classification of minor-closed classes of graphs. Furthermore, we investigate a parameter that has not received any attention in this context yet: the size of the root component. This follows non-gaussian limit laws (beta and gamma), and clearly deserves a systematic investigation.

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We describe edge labelings of the increasing flip graph of a subword complex on a finite Coxeter group, and study applications thereof. On the one hand, we show that they provide canonical spanning trees of the facet-ridge graph of the subword complex, describe inductively these trees, and present their close relations to greedy facets. Searching these trees yields an efficient algorithm to generate all facets of the subword complex, which extends the greedy flip algorithm for pointed pseudotriangulations. On the other hand, when the increasing flip graph is a Hasse diagram, we show that the edge labeling is indeed an EL-labeling and derive further combinatorial properties of paths in the increasing flip graph. These results apply in particular to Cambrian lattices, in which case a similar EL-labeling was recently studied by M. Kallipoliti and H. Mühle.

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We study the statistics $\mathsf{area}$, $\mathsf{bounce}$ and $\mathsf{dinv}$ associated to polyominoes in a rectangular box $m$ times $n$. We show that the bi-statistics ($\mathsf{area}$,$\mathsf{bounce}$) and ($\mathsf{area}$,$\mathsf{dinv}$) give rise to the same $q,t-$analogue of Narayana numbers, which was introduced by two of these authors in a recent paper. We prove the main conjectures of that same work, i.e. the symmetries in $q$ and $t$, and in $m$ and $n$ of these polynomials, by providing a symmetric functions interpretation which relates them to the famous diagonal harmonics.

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In a recent paper with Bousquet-Mélou, de Gier, Duminil-Copin and Guttmann (2012), we proved that a model of self-avoiding walks on the honeycomb lattice, interacting with an impenetrable surface, undergoes an adsorption phase transition when the surface fugacity is 1+√2. Our proof used a generalisation of an identity obtained by Duminil-Copin and Smirnov (2012), and confirmed a conjecture of Batchelor and Yung (1995). Here we consider a similar model of self-avoiding walk adsorption on the honeycomb lattice, but with the impenetrable surface placed at a right angle to the previous orientation. For this model there also exists a conjecture for the critical surface fugacity, made by Batchelor, Bennett-Wood and Owczarek (1998). We adapt the methods of the earlier paper to this setting in order to prove the critical surface fugacity, but have to deal with several subtle complications which arise. This article is an abbreviated version of a paper of the same title, currently being prepared for submission.

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In a recent work, the combinatorial interpretation of the polynomial $\alpha (n; k_1,k_2,\ldots,k_n)$ counting the number of Monotone Triangles with bottom row $k_1 < k_2 < ⋯< k_n$ was extended to weakly decreasing sequences $k_1 ≥k_2 ≥⋯≥k_n$. In this case the evaluation of the polynomial is equal to a signed enumeration of objects called Decreasing Monotone Triangles. In this paper we define Generalized Monotone Triangles – a joint generalization of both ordinary Monotone Triangles and Decreasing Monotone Triangles. As main result of the paper we prove that the evaluation of $\alpha (n; k_1,k_2,\ldots,k_n)$ at arbitrary $(k_1,k_2,\ldots,k_n) ∈ \mathbb{Z}^n$ is a signed enumeration of Generalized Monotone Triangles with bottom row $(k_1,k_2,\ldots,k_n)$. Computational experiments indicate that certain evaluations of the polynomial at integral sequences yield well-known round numbers related to Alternating Sign Matrices. The main result provides a combinatorial interpretation of the conjectured identities and could turn out useful in giving bijective proofs.

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We consider the parameter rank introduced for graph configurations by M. Baker and S. Norine. We focus on complete graphs and obtain an efficient algorithm to determine the rank for these graphs. The analysis of this algorithm leads to the definition of a parameter on Dyck words, which we call prerank. We prove that the distribution of area and prerank on Dyck words of given length $2n$ leads to a polynomial with variables $q,t$ which is symmetric in these variables. This polynomial is different from the $q,t-$Catalan polynomial studied by A. Garsia, J. Haglund and M. Haiman.

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We study sorting operators $\textrm{A}$ on permutations that are obtained composing Knuth's stack sorting operator \textrmS and the reverse operator $\textrm{R}$, as many times as desired. For any such operator $\textrm{A}$, we provide a bijection between the set of permutations sorted by $\textrm{S} \circ \textrm{A}$ and the set of those sorted by $\textrm{S} \circ \textrm{R} \circ \textrm{A}$, proving that these sets are enumerated by the same sequence, but also that many classical permutation statistics are equidistributed across these two sets. The description of this family of bijections is based on an apparently novel bijection between the set of permutations avoiding the pattern $231$ and the set of those avoiding $132$ which preserves many permutation statistics. We also present other properties of this bijection, in particular for finding families of Wilf-equivalent permutation classes.

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We introduce the notion of $\textit{pattern}$ in the context of lattice paths, and investigate it in the specific case of Dyck paths. Similarly to the case of permutations, the pattern-containment relation defines a poset structure on the set of all Dyck paths, which we call the $\textit{Dyck pattern poset}$. Given a Dyck path $P$, we determine a formula for the number of Dyck paths covered by $P$, as well as for the number of Dyck paths covering $P$. We then address some typical pattern-avoidance issues, enumerating some classes of pattern-avoiding Dyck paths. Finally, we offer a conjecture concerning the asymptotic behavior of the sequence counting Dyck paths avoiding a generic pattern and we pose a series of open problems regarding the structure of the Dyck pattern poset.

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A function $g$, with domain the natural numbers, is a quasi-polynomial if there exists a period $m$ and polynomials $p_0,p_1,\ldots,p_m-1$ such that $g(t)=p_i(t)$ for $t\equiv i\bmod m$. Quasi-polynomials classically – and ``reasonably'' – appear in Ehrhart theory and in other contexts where one examines a family of polyhedra, parametrized by a variable t, and defined by linear inequalities of the form $a_1x_1+⋯+a_dx_d≤ b(t)$. Recent results of Chen, Li, Sam; Calegari, Walker; and Roune, Woods show a quasi-polynomial structure in several problems where the $a_i$ are also allowed to vary with $t$. We discuss these ``unreasonable'' results and conjecture a general class of sets that exhibit various (eventual) quasi-polynomial behaviors: sets $S_t$ that are defined with quantifiers $(\forall , ∃)$, boolean operations (and, or, not), and statements of the form $a_1(t)x_1+⋯+a_d(t)x_d ≤ b(t)$, where $a_i(t)$ and $b(t)$ are polynomials in $t$. These sets are a generalization of sets defined in the Presburger arithmetic. We prove several relationships between our conjectures, and we prove several special cases of the conjectures.

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We study variants of Gale-Robinson sequences, as motivated by cluster algebras with principal coefficients. For such cases, we give combinatorial interpretations of cluster variables using brane tilings, as from the physics literature.

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Motivated by the Gaussian symplectic ensemble, Mehta and Wang evaluated the $n×n$ determinant $\det ((a+j-i)Γ (b+j+i))$ in 2000. When $a=0$, Ciucu and Krattenthaler computed the associated Pfaffian $\mathrm{Pf}((j-i)Γ (b+j+i))$ with an application to the two dimensional dimer system in 2011. Recently we have generalized the latter Pfaffian formula with a $q$-analogue by replacing the Gamma function by the moment sequence of the little $q$-Jacobi polynomials. On the other hand, Nishizawa has found a q-analogue of the Mehta–Wang formula. Our purpose is to generalize both the Mehta-Wang and Nishizawa formulae by using the moment sequence of the little $q$-Jacobi polynomials. It turns out that the corresponding determinant can be evaluated explicitly in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials.

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We prove that the Mahonian-Stirling pairs of permutation statistics $(sor, cyc)$ and $(∈v , \mathrm{rlmin})$ are equidistributed on the set of permutations that correspond to arrangements of $n$ non-atacking rooks on a fixed Ferrers board with $n$ rows and $n$ columns. The proofs are combinatorial and use bijections between matchings and Dyck paths and a new statistic, sorting index for matchings, that we define. We also prove a refinement of this equidistribution result which describes the minimal elements in the permutation cycles and the right-to-left minimum letters.

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The equidistribution of many crossing and nesting statistics exists in several combinatorial objects like matchings, set partitions, permutations, and embedded labelled graphs. The involutions switching nesting and crossing numbers for set partitions given by Krattenthaler, also by Chen, Deng, Du, Stanley, and Yan, and for permutations given by Burrill, Mishna, and Post involved passing through tableau-like objects. Recently, Chen and Guo for matchings, and Marberg for set partitions extended the result to coloured arc annotated diagrams. We prove that symmetric joint distribution continues to hold for arc-coloured permutations. As in Marberg's recent work, but through a different interpretation, we also conclude that the ordinary generating functions for all j-noncrossing, k-nonnesting, r-coloured permutations according to size n are rational functions. We use the interpretation to automate the generation of these rational series for both noncrossing and nonnesting coloured set partitions and permutations. <begin>otherlanguage*</begin>french L'équidistribution de plusieurs statistiques décrites en termes d'emboitements et de chevauchements d'arcs s'observes dans plusieurs familles d'objects combinatoires, tels que les couplages, partitions d'ensembles, permutations et graphes étiquetés. L'involution échangeant le nombre d'emboitements et de chevauchements dans les partitions d'ensemble due à Krattenthaler, […]

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Many results involving Schur functions have analogues involving $k-$Schur functions. Standard strong marked tableaux play a role for $k-$Schur functions similar to the role standard Young tableaux play for Schur functions. We discuss results and conjectures toward an analogue of the hook length formula.

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Originally motivated by algebraic invariant theory, we present an algorithm to enumerate integer vectors modulo the action of a permutation group. This problem generalizes the generation of unlabeled graph up to an isomorphism. In this paper, we present the full development of a generation engine by describing the related theory, establishing a mathematical and practical complexity, and exposing some benchmarks. We next show two applications to effective invariant theory and effective Galois theory.

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We study the $\textit{diagrams}$ of affine permutations and their $\textit{balanced}$ labellings. As in the finite case, which was investigated by Fomin, Greene, Reiner, and Shimozono, the balanced labellings give a natural encoding of reduced decompositions of affine permutations. In fact, we show that the sum of weight monomials of the $\textit{column strict}$ balanced labellings is the affine Stanley symmetric function defined by Lam and we give a simple algorithm to recover reduced words from balanced labellings. Applying this theory, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a diagram to be an affine permutation diagram. Finally, we conjecture that if two affine permutations are $\textit{diagram equivalent}$ then their affine Stanley symmetric functions coincide.

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Erdős and Rényi conjectured in 1960 that the limiting probability $p$ that a random graph with $n$ vertices and $M=n/2$ edges is planar exists. It has been shown that indeed p exists and is a constant strictly between 0 and 1. In this paper we answer completely this long standing question by finding an exact expression for this probability, whose approximate value turns out to be $p ≈0.99780$. More generally, we compute the probability of planarity at the critical window of width $n^{2/3}$ around the critical point $M=n/2$. We extend these results to some classes of graphs closed under taking minors. As an example, we show that the probability of being series-parallel converges to 0.98003. Our proofs rely on exploiting the structure of random graphs in the critical window, obtained previously by Janson, Łuczak and Wierman, by means of generating functions and analytic methods. This is a striking example of how analytic combinatorics can be applied to classical problems on random graphs.

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We define a subclass of totally symmetric self-complementary plane partitions (TSSCPPs) which we show is in direct bijection with permutation matrices. This bijection maps the inversion number of the permutation, the position of the 1 in the last column, and the position of the 1 in the last row to natural statistics on these TSSCPPs. We also discuss the possible extension of this approach to finding a bijection between alternating sign matrices and all TSSCPPs. Finally, we remark on a new poset structure on TSSCPPs arising from this perspective which is a distributive lattice when restricted to permutation TSSCPPs.

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In this article, we study some quotient sets on permutations built from peaks, valleys, double rises and double descents. One part is dedicated to the enumeration of the cosets using the bijection of Francon-Viennot which is a bijection between permutations and the so-called Laguerre histories. Then we study the algebraic properties of these quotient sets. After having shown that some of them give rise to quotient algebras of $\mathbf{FQSym}$, we prove that they are also free.

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After extending classical results on simple varieties of trees to trees counted by their number of leaves, we describe a filtration of the set of permutations based on their strong interval trees. For each subclass we provide asymptotic formulas for number of trees (by leaves), average number of nodes of fixed arity, average subtree size sum, and average number of internal nodes. The filtration is motivated by genome comparison of related species.

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A Gelfand model for a semisimple algebra $\mathsf{A}$ over $\mathbb{C}$ is a complex linear representation that contains each irreducible representation of $\mathsf{A}$ with multiplicity exactly one. We give a method of constructing these models that works uniformly for a large class of combinatorial diagram algebras including: the partition, Brauer, rook monoid, rook-Brauer, Temperley-Lieb, Motzkin, and planar rook monoid algebras. In each case, the model representation is given by diagrams acting via ``signed conjugation" on the linear span of their vertically symmetric diagrams. This representation is a generalization of the Saxl model for the symmetric group, and, in fact, our method is to use the Jones basic construction to lift the Saxl model from the symmetric group to each diagram algebra. In the case of the planar diagram algebras, our construction exactly produces the irreducible representations of the algebra.

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Given a reconfigurable system $X$, such as a robot moving on a grid or a set of particles traversing a graph without colliding, the possible positions of $X$ naturally form a cubical complex $\mathcal{S}(X)$. When $\mathcal{S}(X)$ is a CAT(0) space, we can explicitly construct the shortest path between any two points, for any of the four most natural metrics: distance, time, number of moves, and number of steps of simultaneous moves. CAT(0) cubical complexes are in correspondence with posets with inconsistent pairs (PIPs), so we can prove that a state complex $\mathcal{S}(X)$ is CAT(0) by identifying the corresponding PIP. We illustrate this very general strategy with one known and one new example: Abrams and Ghrist's ``positive robotic arm" on a square grid, and the robotic arm in a strip. We then use the PIP as a combinatorial ``remote control" to move these robots efficiently from one position to another.

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The $A_2$-spider category encodes the representation theory of the $sl_3$ quantum group. Kuperberg (1996) introduced a combinatorial version of this category, wherein morphisms are represented by planar graphs called $\textit{webs}$ and the subset of $\textit{reduced webs}$ forms bases for morphism spaces. A great deal of recent interest has focused on the combinatorics of invariant webs for tensors powers of $V^+$, the standard representation of the quantum group. In particular, the invariant webs for the 3$n$th tensor power of $V^+$ correspond bijectively to $[n,n,n]$ standard Young tableaux. Kuperberg originally defined this map in terms of a graphical algorithm, and subsequent papers of Khovanov–Kuperberg (1999) and Tymoczko (2012) introduce algorithms for computing the inverse. The main result of this paper is a redefinition of Kuperberg's map through the representation theory of the symmetric group. In the classical limit, the space of invariant webs carries a symmetric group action. We use this structure in conjunction with Vogan's generalized tau-invariant and Kazhdan–Lusztig theory to show that Kuperberg's map is a direct analogue of the Robinson–Schensted correspondence.

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The periodic patterns of a map are the permutations realized by the relative order of the points in its periodic orbits. We give a combinatorial description of the periodic patterns of an arbitrary signed shift, in terms of the structure of the descent set of a certain transformation of the pattern. Signed shifts are an important family of one-dimensional dynamical systems. For particular types of signed shifts, namely shift maps, reverse shift maps, and the tent map, we give exact enumeration formulas for their periodic patterns. As a byproduct of our work, we recover some results of Gessel and Reutenauer and obtain new results on the enumeration of pattern-avoiding cycles.

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We study the binomial and monomial ideals arising from linear equivalence of divisors on graphs from the point of view of Gröbner theory. We give an explicit description of a minimal Gröbner basis for each higher syzygy module. In each case the given minimal Gröbner basis is also a minimal generating set. The Betti numbers of $I_G$ and its initial ideal (with respect to a natural term order) coincide and they correspond to the number of ``connected flags'' in $G$. Moreover, the Betti numbers are independent of the characteristic of the base field.

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Let $\alpha$ be a string over $\mathbb{Z}_q$, where $q = 2^d$. The $j$-th elementary symmetric function evaluated at $\alpha$ is denoted $e_j(\alpha)$ . We study the cardinalities $S_q(m;\mathcal{T} _1,\mathcal{T} _2,\ldots,\mathcal{T} _t)$ of the set of length $m$ strings for which $e_j(\alpha) = \tau _i$. The $\textit{profile}$ k$(\alpha) = ⟨k_1,k_2,\ldots,k_(q-1) ⟩$ of a string $\alpha$ is the sequence of frequencies with which each letter occurs. The profile of $\alpha$ determines $e_j(\alpha)$ , and hence $S_q$. Let $h_n$ : $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{n+d-1}}^{(q-1)}$ $\mapsto \mathbb{Z}_{2^d} [z] $ mod $ z^{2^n}$ be the map that takes k$(\alpha)$ mod $2^{n+d-1}$ to the polynomial $1+ e_1(\alpha) z + e_2(\alpha) z^2 + ⋯+ e_{2^n-1}(\alpha)$ $z^{2^{n-1}}$. We show that $h_n$ is a group homomorphism and establish necessary conditions for membership in the kernel for fixed $d$. The kernel is determined for $d$ = 2,3. The range of $h_n$ is described for $d$ = 2. These results are used to efficiently compute $S_4(m;\mathcal{T} _1,\mathcal{T} _2,\ldots,\mathcal{T} _t)$ for $d$ = 2 and the number of complete factorizations of certain polynomials.

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Extending the notion of pattern avoidance in permutations, we study matchings and set partitions whose arc diagram representation avoids a given configuration of three arcs. These configurations, which generalize 3-crossings and 3-nestings, have an interpretation, in the case of matchings, in terms of patterns in full rook placements on Ferrers boards. We enumerate 312-avoiding matchings and partitions, obtaining algebraic generating functions, unlike in the 321-avoiding (i.e., 3-noncrossing) case. Our approach also provides a more direct proof of a formula of Bóna for the number of 1342-avoiding permutations. Additionally, we give a bijection proving the shape-Wilf-equivalence of the patterns 321 and 213 which simplifies existing proofs by Backelin–West–Xin and Jelínek.

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In 2007 Sami Assaf introduced dual equivalence graphs as a method for demonstrating that a quasisymmetric function is Schur positive. The method involves the creation of a graph whose vertices are weighted by Ira Gessel's fundamental quasisymmetric functions so that the sum of the weights of a connected component is a single Schur function. In this paper, we improve on Assaf's axiomatization of such graphs, giving locally testable criteria that are more easily verified by computers. We then demonstrate the utility of this result by giving explicit Schur expansions for a family of Lascoux-Leclerc-Thibon polynomials. This family properly contains the previously known case of polynomials indexed by two skew shapes, as was described in a 1995 paper by Christophe Carré and Bernard Leclerc. As an immediate corollary, we gain an explicit Schur expansion for a family of modified Macdonald polynomials in terms of Yamanouchi words. This family includes all polynomials indexed by shapes with less than four cells in the first row and strictly less than three cells in the second row, a slight improvement over the known two column case described in 2005 by James Haglund, Mark Haiman, and Nick Loehr.

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Each positive rational number $x>0$ can be written $\textbf{uniquely}$ as $x=a/(b-a)$ for coprime positive integers 0<$a$<$b$. We will identify $x$ with the pair $(a,b)$. In this extended abstract we use $\textit{rational Dyck paths}$ to define for each positive rational $x>0$ a simplicial complex $\mathsf{Ass} (x)=\mathsf{Ass} (a,b)$ called the $\textit{rational associahedron}$. It is a pure simplicial complex of dimension $a-2$, and its maximal faces are counted by the $\textit{rational Catalan number}$ $\mathsf{Cat} (x)=\mathsf{Cat}(a,b):=\frac{(a+b-1)! }{ a! b!}.$ The cases $(a,b)=(n,n+1)$ and $(a,b)=(n,kn+1)$ recover the classical associahedron and its Fuss-Catalan generalization studied by Athanasiadis-Tzanaki and Fomin-Reading. We prove that $\mathsf{Ass} (a,b)$ is shellable and give nice product formulas for its $h$-vector (the $\textit{rational Narayana numbers}$) and $f$-vector (the $\textit{rational Kirkman numbers}$). We define $\mathsf{Ass} (a,b)$ .

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Many cyclic actions $τ$ on a finite set $\mathcal{S}$ ; of combinatorial objects, along with a natural statistic $f$ on $\mathcal{S}$, exhibit ``homomesy'': the average of $f$ over each $τ$-orbit in $\mathcal{S} $ is the same as the average of $f$ over the whole set $\mathcal{S} $. This phenomenon was first noticed by Panyushev in 2007 in the context of antichains in root posets; Armstrong, Stump, and Thomas proved Panyushev's conjecture in 2011. We describe a theoretical framework for results of this kind and discuss old and new results for the actions of promotion and rowmotion on the poset that is the product of two chains.

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We consider the set $\mathcal{L}_n<$ of n-letters long Lyndon words on the alphabet $\mathcal{A}=\{0,1\}$. For a random uniform element ${L_n}$ of the set $\mathcal{L}_n$, the binary tree $\mathfrak{L} (L_n)$ obtained by successive standard factorization of $L_n$ and of the factors produced by these factorization is the $\textit{Lyndon tree}$ of $L_n$. We prove that the height $H_n$ of $\mathfrak{L} (L_n)$ satisfies $\lim \limits_n \frac{H_n}{\mathsf{ln}n}=\Delta$, in which the constant $\Delta$ is solution of an equation involving large deviation rate functions related to the asymptotics of Eulerian numbers ($\Delta ≃5.092\dots $). The convergence is the convergence in probability of random variables.

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We prove an analogue of the Murnaghan-Nakayama rule to express the product of a power symmetric function and a generalized Demazure atom in terms of generalized Demazure atoms.

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Using an analogue of the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth (RSK) algorithm for semi-skyline augmented fillings, due to Sarah Mason, we exhibit expansions of non-symmetric Cauchy kernels $∏_(i,j)∈\eta (1-x_iy_j)^-1$, where the product is over all cell-coordinates $(i,j)$ of the stair-type partition shape $\eta$ , consisting of the cells in a NW-SE diagonal of a rectangle diagram and below it, containing the biggest stair shape. In the spirit of the classical Cauchy kernel expansion for rectangle shapes, this RSK variation provides an interpretation of the kernel for stair-type shapes as a family of pairs of semi-skyline augmented fillings whose key tableaux, determined by their shapes, lead to expansions as a sum of products of two families of key polynomials, the basis of Demazure characters of type A, and the Demazure atoms. A previous expansion of the Cauchy kernel in type A, for the stair shape was given by Alain Lascoux, based on the structure of double crystal graphs, and by Amy M. Fu and Alain Lascoux, relying on Demazure operators, which was also used to recover expansions for Ferrers shapes.

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We construct a divided difference operator using GKM theory. This generalizes the classical divided difference operator for the cohomology of the complete flag variety. This construction proves a special case of a recent conjecture of Shareshian and Wachs. Our methods are entirely combinatorial and algebraic, and rely heavily on the combinatorics of root systems and Bruhat order.

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In this article, we show how the compositional refinement of the ``Shuffle Conjecture'' due to Jim Haglund, Jennifer Morse, and Mike Zabrocki can be used to express the image of a Schur function under the Bergeron-Garsia Nabla operator as a weighted sum of a suitable collection of ``Parking Functions.'' The validity of these expressions is, of course, going to be conjectural until the compositional refinement of the Shuffle Conjecture is established.

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The set of $n$ by $n$ upper-triangular nilpotent matrices with entries in a finite field $F_q$ has Jordan canonical forms indexed by partitions $λ \vdash n$. We study a connection between these matrices and non-attacking q-rook placements, which leads to a combinatorial formula for the number$ F_λ (q)$ of matrices of fixed Jordan type as a weighted sum over rook placements.

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In this extended abstract we consider the poset of weighted partitions Π _n^w, introduced by Dotsenko and Khoroshkin in their study of a certain pair of dual operads. The maximal intervals of Π _n^w provide a generalization of the lattice Π _n of partitions, which we show possesses many of the well-known properties of Π _n. In particular, we prove these intervals are EL-shellable, we compute the Möbius invariant in terms of rooted trees, we find combinatorial bases for homology and cohomology, and we give an explicit sign twisted <mathfrak>S</mathfrak>_n-module isomorphism from cohomology to the multilinear component of the free Lie algebra with two compatible brackets. We also show that the characteristic polynomial of Π _n^w has a nice factorization analogous to that of Π _n.

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We study height fluctuations around the limit shape of a measure on strict plane partitions. It was shown in our earlier work that this measure is a Pfaffian process. We show that the height fluctuations converge to a pullback of the Green's function for the Laplace operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the first quadrant. We use a Pfaffian formula for higher moments to show that the height fluctuations are governed by the Gaussian free field. The results follow from the correlation kernel asymptotics which is obtained by the steepest descent method.

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We study convolution powers $\mathtt{id}^{\ast n}$ of the identity of graded connected Hopf algebras $H$. (The antipode corresponds to $n=-1$.) The chief result is a complete description of the characteristic polynomial - both eigenvalues and multiplicity - for the action of the operator $\mathtt{id}^{\ast n}$ on each homogeneous component $H_m$. The multiplicities are independent of $n$. This follows from considering the action of the (higher) Eulerian idempotents on a certain Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ associated to $H$. In case $H$ is cofree, we give an alternative (explicit and combinatorial) description in terms of palindromic words in free generators of $\mathfrak{g}$. We obtain identities involving partitions and compositions by specializing $H$ to some familiar combinatorial Hopf algebras.

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This paper studies the coefficients of algebraic functions. First, we recall the too-little-known fact that these coefficients $f_n$ have a closed form. Then, we study their asymptotics, known to be of the type $f_n \sim C A^n n^{\alpha}$. When the function is a power series associated to a context-free grammar, we solve a folklore conjecture: the appearing critical exponents $\alpha$ can not be $^1/_3$ or $^{-5}/_2$, they in fact belong to a subset of dyadic numbers. We extend what Philippe Flajolet called the Drmota-Lalley-Woods theorem (which is assuring $\alpha=^{-3}/_2$ as soon as a "dependency graph" associated to the algebraic system defining the function is strongly connected): We fully characterize the possible critical exponents in the non-strongly connected case. As a corollary, it shows that certain lattice paths and planar maps can not be generated by a context-free grammar (i.e., their generating function is not $\mathbb{N}-algebraic). We end by discussing some extensions of this work (limit laws, systems involving non-polynomial entire functions, algorithmic aspects).

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This paper is devoted to the computation of the number of ordered factorizations of a long cycle in the symmetric group where the number of factors is arbitrary and the cycle structure of the factors is given. Jackson (1988) derived the first closed form expression for the generating series of these numbers using the theory of the irreducible characters of the symmetric group. Thanks to a direct bijection we compute a similar formula and provide the first purely combinatorial evaluation of these generating series.

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For irreducible characters $\{ \chi_q^{\lambda} | \lambda \vdash n\}$ and induced sign characters $\{\epsilon_q^{\lambda} | \lambda \vdash n\}$ of the Hecke algebra $H_n(q)$, and Kazhdan-Lusztig basis elements $C'_w(q)$ with $w$ avoiding the pattern 312, we combinatorially interpret the polynomials $\chi_q^{\lambda}(q^{\frac{\ell(w)}{2}} C'_w(q))$ and $\epsilon_q^{\lambda}(q^{\frac{\ell(w)}{2}} C'_w(q))$. This gives a new algebraic interpretation of $q$-chromatic symmetric functions of Shareshian and Wachs. We conjecture similar interpretations and generating functions corresponding to other $H_n(q)$-traces.

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We develop a method for counting words subject to various restrictions by finding a combinatorial interpretation for a product of formal sums of Laguerre polynomials. We use this method to find the generating function for $k$-ary words avoiding any vincular pattern that has only ones. We also give generating functions for $k$-ary words cyclically avoiding vincular patterns with only ones whose runs of ones between dashes are all of equal length, as well as the analogous results for compositions.

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A convex polyomino is $k$-$\textit{convex}$ if every pair of its cells can be connected by means of a $\textit{monotone path}$, internal to the polyomino, and having at most $k$ changes of direction. The number $k$-convex polyominoes of given semi-perimeter has been determined only for small values of $k$, precisely $k=1,2$. In this paper we consider the problem of enumerating a subclass of $k$-convex polyominoes, precisely the $k$-$\textit{convex parallelogram polyominoes}$ (briefly, $k$-$\textit{parallelogram polyominoes}$). For each $k \geq 1$, we give a recursive decomposition for the class of $k$-parallelogram polyominoes, and then use it to obtain the generating function of the class, which turns out to be a rational function. We are then able to express such a generating function in terms of the $\textit{Fibonacci polynomials}$.

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We introduce two families of symmetric functions with an extra parameter $t$ that specialize to Schubert representatives for cohomology and homology of the affine Grassmannian when $t=1$. The families are defined by a statistic on combinatorial objects associated to the type-$A$ affine Weyl group and their transition matrix with Hall-Littlewood polynomials is $t$-positive. We conjecture that one family is the set of $k$-atoms.

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In a first part, we formalize the construction of combinatorial Hopf algebras from plactic-like monoids using polynomial realizations. Thank to this construction we reveal a lattice structure on those combinatorial Hopf algebras. As an application, we construct a new combinatorial Hopf algebra on binary trees with multiplicities and use it to prove a hook length formula for those trees.

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For a given sequence $\alpha = [\alpha_1,\alpha_2,\ldots , \alpha_N, \alpha_{N+1}]$ of $N+1$ positive integers, we consider the combinatorial function $E(\alpha)(t)$ that counts the nonnegative integer solutions of the equation $\alpha_1x_1+\alpha_2 x_2+ \ldots+ \alpha_Nx_N+ \alpha_{N+1}x_{N+1}=t$, where the right-hand side $t$ is a varying nonnegative integer. It is well-known that $E(\alpha)(t)$ is a quasipolynomial function of $t$ of degree $N$. In combinatorial number theory this function is known as the $\textit{denumerant}$. Our main result is a new algorithm that, for every fixed number $k$, computes in polynomial time the highest $k+1$ coefficients of the quasi-polynomial $E(\alpha)(t)$ as step polynomials of $t$. Our algorithm is a consequence of a nice poset structure on the poles of the associated rational generating function for $E(\alpha)(t)$ and the geometric reinterpretation of some rational generating functions in terms of lattice points in polyhedral cones. Experiments using a $\texttt{MAPLE}$ implementation will be posted separately.

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We prove that the complement of a complexified toric arrangement has the homotopy type of a minimal CW-complex, and thus its homology is torsion-free. To this end, we consider the toric Salvetti complex, a combinatorial model for the arrangement's complement. Using diagrams of acyclic categories we obtain a stratification of this combinatorial model that explicitly associates generators in homology to the "local no-broken-circuit sets'' defined in terms of the incidence relations of the arrangement. Then we apply a suitably generalized form of Discrete Morse Theory to describe a sequence of elementary collapses leading from the full model to a minimal complex.

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